Development and psychometric validation of a novel measure of sensory expectancies associated with e-cigarette use
IntroductionE-cigarette dependence measures largely focus on e-cigarette use (“vaping”) that is linked to nicotine use, and measures assessing sensory aspects of vaping that may influence use (e.g., taste) are limited in scope. Thus, we developed the novel Sensory E-cigarette Expectancies Scale (SEES). MethodsIn Summer 2017, 610 adult e-cigarette users (48.7% male, 84.9% White, 37.41[±12.15] years old) completed an online survey that included 23 SEES items. Psychometric analyses...
Author(s): Meghan E. Morean (Lead); Hyoshin Kim; Jonathan Foulds; Rachel A. Grana; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Steve Sussman; Scott Weaver; Stephanie S. O'Malley; Bonnie Halpern-Felsher; Dr. Howard Fishbein
PubMed: Addictive Behaviors, 91, 208-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.08.031
Despite the associated negative health outcomes, waterpipe smoking remains a popular method of tobacco consumption, specifically in young adults. While there have been expanding efforts to decrease waterpipe use, there is a new, non-combustible waterpipe device on the market, the electronic waterpipe (e-waterpipe), that could serve as an alternative to traditional, combustible waterpipe smoking. There is currently no known literature evaluating the e-waterpipe including prevalence of use or...
Author(s): Dr. Andrea Stroup (Lead); Steven Branstetter
PubMed: Addictive Behaviors, 91, 90-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.09.034
The Effects of Varying Electronic Cigarette Warning Label Design Features On Attention, Recall, and Product Perceptions Among Young Adults.
This study was a 3 (Brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) by 3 (Warning Size: 20%, 30%, or 50% of advertisement surface) by 2 (Warning Background: White, Red) experimental investigation of the effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) warning label design features. Young adults aged 18-30 years (n = 544) were recruited online, completed demographic and tobacco use history measures, and randomized to view e-cigarette advertisements with warning labels that varied by the experimental...
Author(s): Jennifer L Pearson (Lead)
PubMed: Health Commun. 2019 Mar;34(3):317-324. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1372050. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
OBJECTIVE:Measure associations between adolescent baseball players' perceptions of smokeless tobacco (ST) use by professional baseball players and those adolescents' actual ST use and susceptibility.METHODS:Male baseball players (N = 360) at 25 rural California high schools completed tobacco behavior surveys and reported how likely they believed it was their favorite major league baseball player used ST. We compared ST use and, among ST never-users, willingness and expectations to use...
Author(s): Benjamin Chaffee (Lead); Elizabeth Couch; Stuart Gansky
PubMed: J Public Health Dent. 2018 Dec;78(1):5-8. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12228. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
Worldviews and trust of sources for health information on electronic nicotine delivery systems: Effects on risk perceptions and use.
Public health agencies, the news media, and the tobacco/vapor industry have issued contradictory statements about the health effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). We investigated the levels of trust that consumers place in different information sources and how trust is associated with cultural worldviews, risk perceptions, ENDS use, and sociodemographic characteristics using a nationally representative sample of 6051 U.S. adults in 2015. Seventeen percent of adults were uncertain...
Author(s): Scott Weaver (Lead); Paul Slovic; Michael Eriksen; Lucy Popova; Amelia Jazwa; Amelia Jazwa; Richard Rothenberg
PubMed: SSM Popul Health. 2017 Dec; 3: 787–794. Published online 2017 Sep 29. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.09.003
Heated tobacco products (HTP) represent the latest in a long line of products tobacco companies have developed and marketed as less dangerous than conventional cigarettes, beginning with so-called ‘safer cigarettes’ in the 1960s.1 2 HTP (figure 1) heat tobacco to generate an inhaled nicotine aerosol and are marketed using messages that explicitly or implicitly claim they are safer than cigarettes
Author(s): Stanton Glantz (Lead)
PubMed: Glantz SA Heated tobacco products: the example of IQOS Tobacco Control 2018;27:s1-s6.
Clinical Laboratory Evaluation of Electronic Cigarettes/Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Methodological Challenges.
OBJECTIVE:Evaluating electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) in the clinical laboratory is critical to understanding their effects. However, laboratory evaluation of ECIGs can be challenging, as they are a novel, varied, and evolving class of products. The objective of this paper is to describe some methodological challenges to the clinical laboratory evaluation of ECIGs.METHODS:The authors gathered information about challenges involved in the laboratory evaluation of ECIGs. Challenges were categorized...
Author(s): Melissa Blank (Lead); Alison Breland; Caroline Cobb; Carolina P Ramôa; Tory Spindle; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):426-439. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.12.
This study estimated the health care utilization and expenditures attributable to the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) which includes chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco among US adults aged 18 and older.METHODS:We used data from the 2012-2015 National Health Interview Surveys (n = 139451 adults) to estimate a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model on four health care utilization measures among US adults (hospital nights, emergency room [ER] visits, doctor visits...
Author(s): P Sheeran (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Sep 25;20(11):1359-1368. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx196. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
If You Are Old Enough to Die for Your Country, You Should Be Able to Get a Pinch of Snuff”: Views of Tobacco 21 Among Appalachian Youth.
Tobacco use tops the list of causes of preventable disease and death in the U.S., accounting for 20% of deaths.1 Despite abundant research documenting the negative health effects associated with tobacco use, and numerous tobacco control measures put in place to reduce use over the past fifty years, 1 an estimated 36.5 million U.S. adults 18 years and older currently smoke cigarettes. 2 Although the number of adult current cigarette smokers has declined over the past ten years, approximately...
Author(s): Lindsay Tompkins (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Clara Sears; Joy Hart; Kandi Walker; Alexander Lee
PubMed: Journal of Applied Research on Children. (In press).
Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.
INTRODUCTION:Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves...
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Sep 4;20(10):1243-1249. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx148.
Subjective experiences at first use of cigarette, e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigar products among Texas adolescents
INTRODUCTION: Subjective experiences ("SEs") at first cigarette use have been thoroughly examined; however, limited research has examined SEs at first use of non-cigarette products. This study addresses this gap in the literature. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 6th, 8th and 10th grade students in four metropolitan areas of Texas (n=3907/N=461,069). Nausea, coughing, relaxation, rush/buzz, and dizziness at first use were assessed for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigar products...
Author(s): Dale Mantey (Lead); Kathleen Case; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Brittani Crook; Steven Kelder
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jan 25;173:10-16. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.12.010.
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) markets in Texas and the United States (US) as a whole. METHODS: Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2014 were obtained for Dallas, Houston, San Antonio/Austin, and the total US. Descriptive statistics highlighted market share differences in Texas compared to the US overall. RESULTS: Marlboro and Copenhagen dominated the cigarette (58.9%) and SLT markets (44.8%) in Texas and had substantially higher relative...
Author(s): Erin J. Miller Lo (Lead); Cristine D. Delnevo; Daniel P. Giovenco; Olivia A. Wackowski; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017;3(2):183-191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18001/TRS.3.2.6.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of e-cigarette advertising on e-cigarette use behaviors among youth over time. METHODS: At baseline, 3907 students participated in a youth tobacco surveillance study from 2014-2015 and 2488 students completed a 6-month follow-up. Weighted logistic regression models investigated the recall of e-cigarette advertisements (TV/radio/billboards/retail/Internet) as a risk factor for e-cigarette perceived harm, use, and susceptibility. RESULTS: The odds of...
Author(s): NE Nicksic (Lead); Adriana Pérez; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Keryn Pasch
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017;3(2):210-221.
INTRODUCTION:Flavored little cigars, cigarillos, and filtered cigars (LCCs) are popular and pose unique health risks. This study explored risk perceptions of flavors in LCCs and the relationship between perceptions and use among U.S. adults.METHODS:Data were from the 2015 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 6051 adults, conducted online, August-September, 2015. The analytic sample consisted of 5105 adults aware of LCCs and 2174 who had ever used...
Author(s): Amy L. Nyman (Lead); Dina Jones; Kymberle L. Sterling; Ban Majeed; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Jun 28. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx153. [Epub ahead of print]
The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States
The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements...
Author(s): Mohammad Siahpush (Lead); Andrew Hyland; Michael Cummings; Danielle Smith; Raees Shaikh; Asia Kessler; Michael Dodd; Jane Meza; Melanie Wakefield
PubMed: Int J Eviron Res Public Health. 2016 Feb 6;13(2):203. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13020203
Warning Statements and Safety Practices among Manufacturers and Distributors of Electronic Cigarette Liquids in the United States.
INTRODUCTION:Prior to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of electronic cigarettes and warning statements related to nicotine addiction, there was no critical examination of manufacturer/distributor voluntary practices that could potentially inform FDA actions aimed to protect consumers. This study examined the content of warning statements and safety characteristics of electronic cigarette liquid bottles using a national sample.METHODS:Research staff randomly selected four...
Author(s): Pebbles Fagan (Lead); Pallav Pokhrel; Thaddeus Herzog; Mignonne Guy; Kari-lyn Sakuma; Dennis Trinidad; Kevin Cassel; Dorothy Jorgensen
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 May 18. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx101. [Epub ahead of print]
INTRODUCTION:Sugars are major constituents and additives in traditional tobacco products, but little is known about their content or related toxins (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids. This study quantified levels of sugars and aldehydes in e-cigarette liquids across brands, flavors, and nicotine concentrations (n = 66).METHODS:Unheated e-cigarette liquids were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic test kits...
Author(s): Pebbles Fagan (Lead); Pallav Pokhrel; Thaddeus Herzog; Kevin Cassel; Eric Moolchan; Adrian Franke; Xingnan Li
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Nov 22. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx234. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND:Smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings in the United States (U.S.), and known predictors of smoking do not readily account for this trend difference. Given that socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of health disparities accumulate in rural settings and that life-course disadvantages are often greater in women than men, we examined whether smoking trends are different for rural and urban men and women.METHOD:We used yearly cross-sectional...
Author(s): Antonio Cepeda-Benito (Lead); Amanda Quisenberry; Allison Kurti; Alexa Lopez; Andrea C. Villanti; Diann E. Gaalema; Megan E. Roberts; Ryan Redner; Stephen Higgins; Nathan J. Doogan; Cassandra Stanton; Diana Parker; Diana Keith; Maria Parker
PubMed: Prev Med. 2018 Apr 5. pii: S0091-7435(18)30119-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.04.008.
IntroductionRural Americans are particularly vulnerable to tobacco price reducing promotions are known to be directed to and used by vulnerable populations. Tobacco purchasing decisions, such as unit quantity purchased, may vary by rurality, by price promotion use, and possibly by the interaction between the two. Purchase decisions are likely to affect tobacco use behavior. Therefore, explanation of variation in tobacco purchase quantity by factors associated with rural vulnerability...
Author(s): Nathan J. Doogan (Lead); Amanda Quisenberry; Sarah Cooper; Theodore Brasky; Christopher Browning; Elizabeth Klein; Alice Hinton; Haikady Nagaraja; Wenna Xi; Mary Ellen Wewers
PubMed: Health Place. 2018 May;51:151-157. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.03.009. Epub 2018 Apr 3
Maternal obesity and smoking are associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. These prevalent conditions contribute to health disparities. In this study, we examine whether maternal BMI moderates the impact of smoking cessation on short-term perinatal outcomes. This is a secondary analysis of assessments conducted from several prospective clinical trials examining the efficacy of incentives to promote smoking cessation during pregnancy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive financial...
Author(s): Clare Meernik (Lead)
PubMed: J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Jun;31(12):1620-1626. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1322950. Epub 2017 May 14.
mActive-Smoke: Using Mobile Health Tools to Assess the Association of Physical Activity with Smoking Urges.
Background: Evidence that physical activity can curb smoking urges is limited in scope to acute effects and reliant on retrospective self-reported measures. Objective: We sought to explore this in a real-world longitudinal setting by leveraging mobile health tools to assess the association between objectively measured physical activity and concurrent smoking urges in a 12-week prospective observational study. Methods: We enrolled 60 active smokers (≥ 3 cigarettes per day)...
Author(s): Luke Silverman-Lloyd (Lead); Michael Blaha; Sina Kianoush; Alyse Sabina; Garth Graham; Seth Martin
PubMed: JMIR Preprints. 27/10/2017:9292. DOI: 10.2196/preprints.9292.
Child-resistant and tamper-resistant packaging: A systematic review to inform tobacco packaging regulation.
Objective We aimed to investigate the effects of special packaging (child-resistant, adult-friendly) and tamper-resistant packaging on health and behavioral outcomes in order to identify research gaps and implications for packaging standards for tobacco products. Methods We searched seven databases for keywords related to special and tamper-resistant packaging, consulted experts, and reviewed citations of potentially relevant studies. 733 unique papers were identified. Two coders...
Author(s): Catherine Jo (Lead); Cathy Backinger; Anita Ambs; Carolyn Dresler
PubMed: Prev Med. 2017 Feb;95:89-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.013. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.
INTRODUCTION:The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers.METHODS:We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29...
Author(s): Yingning Wang (Lead); Hai-Yen Sung; Tingting Yao; James Lightwood; Wendy Max
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 May 3;20(6):741-748. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx038.
Introduction: N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), an esophageal and oral carcinogen present in tobacco products, has a chiral center in its structure. Of its two enantiomers, (S)-NNN exhibits higher tumorigenic potency than (R)-NNN. There is no information available on the levels of (S)-NNN in various tobacco products currently marketed in the United States. Methods: We used chiral gas chromatography analysis to determine (S)-NNN levels in a convenience sample of 37 tobacco products currently marketed...
Author(s): Irina Stepanov (Lead); Pramod Upadhyaya; Stephen Hecht; Katrina Yershova; Steven Carmella
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jul;15(7):1305-10. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts249. Epub 2012 Dec 3.
Background Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive...
Author(s): Page Spiess (Lead); Matthew Randall; Albert van der Vliet; David Kasahara; Aida Habibovic; Milena Hristova; Matthew Poynter
PubMed: Respir Res. 2013 Oct 16;14:107. doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-14-107.
Introduction: Smoking cessation is associated with greater breast feeding in newly postpartum women, while being overweight or obese is associated with lower rates of breast feeding. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the increases in breast feeding associated with smoking cessation are moderated by maternal body mass index (BMI). To our knowledge, the interaction of maternal smoking status and overweight/obesity on breast feeding has not been previously reported. Methods: Participants...
Author(s): Drina Vurbic (Lead); Stephen Higgins; Stephanie McDonough; Joan Skelly; Ira Bernstein
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May;16(5):527-35. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt173. Epub 2013 Nov 7.
Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1.
Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications...
Author(s): Matthew Randall (Lead); Page Spiess; Albert van der Vliet; Milena Hristova; Robert Hondal
PubMed: Redox Biol. 2013 Feb 22;1:265-75. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2013.02.001. eCollection 2013.
Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2012.
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are battery-powered devices that provide doses of nicotine and other additives to the user in an aerosol. Depending on the brand, e-cigarette cartridges typically contain nicotine, a component to produce the aerosol (e.g., propylene glycol or glycerol), and flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, or chocolate) (1). Potentially harmful constituents also have been documented in some e-cigarette cartridges, including irritants, genotoxins, and animal carcinogens...
Author(s): Catherine Corey (Lead); Baoguang Wang; Benjamin Apelberg; René Arrazola; Rebecca Bunnell; Sarah Johnson; Shanta Dube; Brian King; Corinne Husten; Tim McAfee
PubMed: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Sep 6;62(35):729-30.
Introduction: Experimental cigarettes are needed to conduct studies examining the effects of varying doses of nicotine content on smoking behavior. The National Institute on Drug Abuse contracted with Research Triangle Institute to make such cigarettes available to researchers. The goal of this study was to determine whether cigarettes that vary in nicotine content produce an expected dose–response effect. Method: Two studies were conducted. The first study recruited subjects from 3 sites...
Author(s): Dorothy Hatsukami (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Rachel Vogel; Rachel Denlinger-Apte; Stephen Heishman; Astia Roper-Batker; Kristen Mackowick; Joni Jensen; Sharon Murphy; Brian Thomas
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jun;15(6):1113-21. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts247. Epub 2012 Nov 22.
Usefulness of Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity and C-Reactive Protein in Identifying High Risk Smokers for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease from the ARIC Study.
Despite the causal role of cigarette smoking in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We evaluated the joint relation between smoking and inflammatory markers with ASCVD risk. We tested cross-sectional associations of self-reported smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (packs/day) with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in 10,506 Atherosclerosis...
Author(s): Martin Timbuakuu (Lead); John W. McEvoy; Andrew DeFilipis; Michael Blaha; Sina Kianoush; Di Zhao; Eliseo Guallar; Christie Ballantyne; Ron Hoogeveen; Erin Michos
PubMed: American Journal of Cardiology (in press).
Implications and challenges for implementation of the FDA's final deeming rule for waterpipe tobacco.
For the first time, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDAs) Center for Tobacco Products now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products, including waterpipe tobacco. In the rule expanding its authority to cover all tobacco products, the FDA uses largely a one-size-fits-all approach. However, several aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking make it unique from other tobacco products, which may require more specific, tailored rules. This paper describes the distinct features of waterpipe...
Author(s): Erin Sutfin (Lead); Eric K. Soule; Desmond Jenson; Karma McKelvey
PubMed: Tob Control. 2018 May;27(3):347-351. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053634. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
Comparison of a preferred versus non-preferred waterpipe tobacco flavour: subjective experience, smoking behaviour and toxicant exposure.
Introduction One possible reason for the rapid proliferation of waterpipe (WP) smoking is the pervasive use of flavoured WP tobacco. To begin to understand the impact of WP tobacco flavours, the current study examined the impact of a preferred WP tobacco flavour compared with a non-preferred tobacco flavoured control on user’s smoking behaviour, toxicant exposure and subjective smoking experience.Method Thirty-six current WP smokers completed two, 45-minute ad libitum smoking sessions...
Author(s): Eleanor Leavens (Lead); Theodore L. Wagener; Alan Shihadeh; Thomas Eissenberg; Leslie Driskill; Neil Molina; Emma Brett; Evan Floyd
PubMed: Tob Control. 2018 May;27(3):319-324. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053344. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
Opportunities for Consumer Research from the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products
The first purpose of this Policy Watch article is to discuss the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory authority over the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products. In doing so, the authors describe the public health goals and priorities from the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products. Then, the authors present current consumer and marketing research in important areas of reducing the death and disability resulting from tobacco use, such as the impacts...
Author(s): J. Craig Andrews (Lead); David Portnoy; Conartd Choiniere
PubMed: Journal of Public Policy & Marketing: Spring 2015, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 119-130.
Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking...
Author(s): Dierdre Lawrence (Lead); Allison Hoffman; Brie Cadman
PubMed: Tob Induc Dis. 2011 May 23;9 Suppl 1:S3. doi: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-S3.
Biomarkers of exposure among U.S. cigar smokers: an analysis of 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data.
Background: Cigar consumption is increasing in the United States, but little information is available about exposure to toxic constituents from cigar smoking. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of biomarkers of tobacco exposure among 25,522 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999–2012). The biomarkers analyzed were serum cotinine, urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary...
Author(s): Jiping Chen (Lead); Brian Rostron; Hannah Day; Anna Kettermann
PubMed: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec;23(12):2906-15. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0849. Epub 2014 Nov 7.
Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory...
Author(s): Sarah Evans (Lead); Allison Hoffman
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii23-9. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051489.
Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in the United States and the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco or Health ratified by over 170 countries render scientific investigations into the abuse liability, harm, and effects of tobacco more critical than ever. A key area to explore relates to the potential regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. Determining the nicotine content per cigarette below which smokers reliably reduce their consumption...
Author(s): Eric C. Donny (Lead); Danielle Joel; Mark LeSage; Tracy Taylor; Melissa Levin; Deanne Buffalari; Alan Sved
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Nov;14(11):1319-38. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts162. Epub 2012 Sep 4.
Background: Reducing nicotine content in cigarettes and other combustible products to levels that are not reinforcing or addictive has the potential to substantially reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. The authority to reduce nicotine levels as a regulatory measure is provided in the U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and is consistent with the general regulatory powers envisioned under the relevant articles of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention...
Author(s): Dorothy Hatsukami (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Jack Henningfield; Neal Benowitz; Mitch Zeller
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jun;15(6):1003-13. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts214. Epub 2012 Oct 25.
Separate and combined effects of very low nicotine cigarettes and nicotine replacement in smokers with schizophrenia and controls.
Introduction: The prevalence of smoking among people with schizophrenia in the United States is about 3 times that of the general population. Novel approaches are needed to reduce rates of smoking-related morbidity and mortality among these smokers. Methods: This study used a within-subjects design to investigate the separate and combined effects of sensorimotor replacement for smoking (very low nicotine content [VLNC] cigarettes vs. no cigarettes) and transdermal nicotine replacement (42...
Author(s): Jennifer W. Tidey (Lead); Christopher AhnAllen; Damaris Rohsenow; Gary Kaplan; Robert Swift
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan;15(1):121-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts098. Epub 2012 Apr 19.
Introduction: Several noncombusted oral tobacco products have been introduced that are primarily marketed to cigarette smokers. An important component of evaluating these products involves assessment of subjective responses to the product. To date, few studies have been undertaken to examine the validity of subjective response questionnaires for oral tobacco products. The goal of this study is to examine the extent subjective responses to a product are related to product preference and extent...
Author(s): Dorothy Hatsukami (Lead); Richard O'Connor; Yan Zhang; Herb Severson
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jul;15(7):1259-64. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts265. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research...
Author(s): Brian Southwell (Lead); Annice Kim; Greta Tessman
PubMed: Am J Health Promot. 2012 Jul-Aug;26(6):331-2. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.111004-CIT-357.
Cigarette smoking remains highly prevalent in the U.S. and contributes significantly to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Tobacco control policies, including product regulation, can reduce smoking-related harm. One approach being considered in the U.S. is for the FDA to set a low nicotine standard for cigarettes. Such a standard could result in multiple beneficial outcomes including reduced cardiovascular toxicity related to nicotine, reduced smoking intensity in current smokers, increased cessation...
Author(s): Danielle Joel (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Neal Benowitz; Rachel Denlinger-Apte; Sarah Dermody
PubMed: Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2012 Dec 1;6(6):534-541. Epub 2012 Sep 1.
Young adults' favorable perceptions of snus, dissolvable tobacco products and electronic cigarettes: Findings from a focus group study
Objectives. We explored young adults’ perceptions of snus (spitless moist snuff packed in porous bags), dissolvable tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes and intention to try these products. Methods. We conducted 11 focus group discussions involving a total of 66 young adults (18–26 years old) on these new tobacco products (e.g., harmfulness, potential as quit aids, intention to try) held between July and December 2010. We analyzed discussions using a thematic approach. Results...
Author(s): Kelvin Choi (Lead); Lindsey Fabian; Neli Mottey; Amanda Corbett; Jean Forster
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2012 Nov;102(11):2088-93. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300525. Epub 2012 Jul 19.
The Food and Drug Administration’s regulation of tobacco: The Center for Tobacco Products’ Office of Science
Author(s): David Ashley (Lead); Cathy Backinger
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2012 Nov;43(5 Suppl 3):S255-63. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.08.004.
INTRODUCTION: Dissolvable tobacco products (DTPs) are relatively new to the market. Some researchers and manufacturers describe them as finely ground tobacco that has been compressed into sticks, strips, and orbs that dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth and do not require spitting. While the pharmacokinetic profiles of nicotine and other tobacco-associated compounds and pharmacological effects of these products are complex, their clinical pharmacology has not been systematically evaluated...
Author(s): Elena Mishina (Lead); Allison Hoffman
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar;16(3):253-62. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt182. Epub 2013 Nov 19.
Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts...
Author(s): Megan Schroeder (Lead); Allison Hoffman
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii30-5. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051469.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) receives and reviews voluntary reports from consumers, healthcare professionals and members of the public on adverse experiences (AEs) associated with tobacco products. Reports from consumers and concerned citizens have described AEs not only in users, but also in non-users of e-cigarettes.1 ,2 AE reports received by FDA between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 were reviewed to evaluate AEs associated with e-cigarettes...
Author(s): Elizabeth Durmowicz (Lead); Ii-Lun Chen; Susan Rudy
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Mar;25(2):242. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052235. Epub 2015 Apr 23.
Measuring E-cigarette use, dependence, and perceptions: Important principles and considerations to advance tobacco regulatory science
Author(s): Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (Lead); Hyoshin Kim
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2018 Apr;79:201-202. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.014. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
Effects of Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation on Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women
INTRODUCTION:Financial incentives for smoking cessation increase smoking abstinence and decrease Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores among depression-prone pregnant and postpartum women. The present study is a secondary analysis using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to examine whether this treatment impacts a broader array of mood and anxiety symptoms.METHODS:Participants (N = 253) were pregnant cigarette smokers who participated in four controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy...
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Apr 2;20(5):620-627. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx111.
Measuring perceptions related to e-cigarettes: Important principles and next steps to enhance study validity.
Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing...
Author(s): Robert Swift (Lead)
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2018 Apr;79:219-225. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.017. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
Changes in resting state functional brain connectivity and withdrawal symptoms are associated with acute electronic cigarette use.
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic...
Author(s): Andrea Hobkirk (Lead); Jonathan Foulds; Jessica Yingst; Susan Veldheer; Travis T. Nichols; Thomas Eissenberg; Shari Hrabovsky; John Richie; Stephen Wilson
PubMed: Brain Res Bull. 2018 Apr;138:56-63. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.05.010. Epub 2017 May 17.
Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke on Learning and Memory of Adult Offspring Rats.
INTRODUCTION:Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence worldwide, including among pregnant women. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal maternal waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) exposure during different stages of pregnancy on learning and memory of adult offspring rats.METHODS:Pregnant rats received either fresh air or mainstream WTS (2 hours daily) during early, mid, late, or whole gestational period. Male offspring rats were followed through 20 weeks. Outcomes included...
Author(s): Nour Al-Sawalha (Lead); Karem Alzoubi; Omar F. Khabour; Thomas Eissenberg; Weam Alyacoub; Yehya Almahmmod
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Mar 6;20(4):508-514. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx142.
Establishing consensus on survey measures for electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery system use: Current challenges and considerations for researchers.
The development and validation of survey measures for electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use has not kept pace with the burgeoning research on them. This, along with the diverse and evolving nature of ENDS, presents several unique measurement challenges and hampers surveillance and tobacco regulatory research efforts. In this commentary, we identify four important areas related to ENDS use (describing ENDS products; defining current use; evaluating frequency and quantity...
Author(s): Scott Weaver (Lead); Hyoshin Kim; Jessica Barrington-Trimis; Alexandra Loukas; Allison Glasser; Erin Sutfin; Thomas Payne; Megan Saddleson
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2017 Nov 16. pii: S0306-4603(17)30426-4. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.016
The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) consist of propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine, and chemical additives for flavoring. There are currently over 7,700 e-liquid flavors available, and while some have been tested for toxicity in the laboratory, most have not. Here, we developed a 3-phase, 384-well, plate-based, high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to rapidly triage and validate the toxicity of multiple e-liquids. Our data demonstrated that the PG/VG vehicle...
Author(s): Flori Sassano (Lead); Robert Tarran; Eric Davis; James Keating; Bryan Zorn; Tavleen Kochar ; Matthew Wolfgang; Gary Glish
PubMed: PLoS Biol. 2018 Mar 27;16(3):e2003904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2003904. eCollection 2018 Mar.
Use of Electronic Cigarettes Leads to Significant Beta2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Occupancy: Evidence From a PET Imaging Study.
BACKGROUND:Electronic cigarettes (ECs) can influence nicotine addiction by delivering aerosolized nicotine. We investigated if nicotine from ECs is delivered to the brain β2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChR) and how this relates to the behavioral effects and nicotine delivery from cigarettes.METHODS:Seven nicotine users participated in positron emission tomography (PET) studies with (-)-[18F]Flubatine before and after nicotine challenge with 0, 8, and 36 mg/ml nicotine in a...
Author(s): Stephen Baldassarri (Lead); Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Stephanie S. O'Malley; Thomas Eissenberg; Peter Jatlow; Ansel Hillmer; Jon Mikael Anderson; Nabeel Nabulsi; David Labaree; Kelly Cosgrove
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Mar 6;20(4):425-433. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx091.
To address issues with measured and unmeasured confounding in observational studies, we developed a unified approach to using an instrumental variable in more flexible ways to evaluate treatment effects. The approach is based on an instrumental propensity score conditional on baseline variables, which can then be incorporated in matching, regression, subclassification, or weighting along with various parametric, semiparametric, or nonparametric methods for the assessment of treatment effects...
Author(s): Jing Cheng (Lead); Winston Lin
PubMed: Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Mar 1;187(3):614-622. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx282.
OBJECTIVE:To estimate healthcare costs attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home among nonsmoking adults (18+) in the U.S.METHODS:We analyzed data on nonsmoking adults (N=67,735) from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 (the latest available data on SHS exposure at home) U.S. National Health Interview Surveys. This study was conducted from 2015 to 2017. We examined hospital nights, home care visits, doctor visits, and emergency room (ER) visits. For each, we analyzed the association of...
Author(s): Yanyun He (Lead)
PubMed: Prev Med. 2018 Mar;108:41-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.12.028. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
Is the cigarette pack just a wrapper or a characteristic of the product itself? A qualitative study of adult smokers to inform U.S. regulations.
Abstract Purpose In the U.S., tobacco products are now regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Litigation has quickly followed. One area of controversy is when a change to the design of the cigarette pack requires approval through FDA's rigorous premarket review process. In this paper, we examine how adult U.S. smokers view the connection between the design of cigarette packs and the characteristics of the cigarettes within. Methods Data for this qualitative study...
Author(s): Joseph G. L. Lee (Lead); Kyle Gregory; Paige Averett; Tiffany Blanchflower
PubMed: Journal of Cancer Policy. 2018;15(A):45-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpo.2017.12.003.
Purpose Despite high rates of cigar use among youth, little information exists about how cigar warnings are received by youth. We examined believability of different cigar warning messages with different sources among adolescents in a national phone survey. Methods Adolescents (aged 13–17 years) in the US (N = 1,125; total response rate, 66%) were randomized to receive one of three health messages (“cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not...
Author(s): Sarah D. Kowitt (Lead); Leah Ranney; Adam Goldstein; Kristen Jarman
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2017 Mar;60(3):299-305. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.10.007. Epub 2016 Dec 10.
E-Cigarette Use Causes a Unique Innate Immune Response in the Lung Involving Increased Neutrophilic Activation and Altered Mucin Secretion
RATIONALE: E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and little is known about their potential adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of e-cigarette use on the airways. METHODS: Induced sputum samples from cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and nonsmokers were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, and the total and individual concentrations of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were determined by light scattering/refractometry and labeled mass spectrometry, respectively...
Author(s): B Reidel (Lead); Neil Alexis; SH Abdelwahab; M Kesimer; G Radicioni; PW Clapp; AA Ford; ME Rebuli; P Haridass; I Jaspers
PubMed: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017. Epub 2017/10/21. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201708-1590OC
Low cigarette consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: meta-analysis of 141 cohort studies in 55 study reports.
OBJECTIVE: To use the relation between cigarette consumption and cardiovascular disease to quantify the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke for light smoking (one to five cigarettes/day). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline 1946 to May 2015, with manual searches of references. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Prospective cohort studies with at least 50 events, reporting hazard ratios or relative risks (both hereafter referred to...
Author(s): Allan Hackshaw (Lead); Joan Morris; Sadie Boniface; Jin-Ling Tang; Dusan Milenkovic
PubMed: BMJ. 2018;360:j5855.
Type of E-cigarette Device Used Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings from a pooled analysis of 8 studies of 2,166 vapers. 2017 (in press)
Background A recent study of adult smokers who vape found that disposable/cigalike electronic (e-) cigarette devices were more commonly used than later generation devices. However, whether these trends reflect patterns among adolescents and young adults, many of whom have limited or no history of combustible cigarette use, has not been studied. Methods Participants were drawn from eight locally, regionally, and US nationally representative studies. Surveys took place between Fall 2014...
Author(s): Jessica Barrington-Trimis (Lead); Grace Kong; Laura Gibson; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Scott Weaver; Adam Leventhal; Rob McConnell; Alexandra Loukas; Melissa Harrell; Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
PubMed: Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, 5 January 2018, Pages 271–274, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx069
Type of E-Cigarette Device Used Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings From a Pooled Analysis of Eight Studies of 2166 Vapers.
BACKGROUND:A recent study of adult smokers who vape found that disposable/cigalike electronic (e-) cigarette devices were more commonly used than later generation devices. However, whether these trends reflect patterns among adolescents and young adults, many of whom have limited or no history of combustible cigarette use, has not been studied.METHODS:Participants were drawn from eight locally, regionally, and US nationally representative studies. Surveys took place between Fall 2014 and Spring...
Author(s): Jessica Barrington-Trimis (Lead); Grace Kong; Laura Gibson; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Scott Weaver; Adam Leventhal; Rob McConnell; Alexandra Loukas; Melissa Harrell; Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jan 5;20(2):271-274. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx069.
BACKGROUND:There is considerable debate about the benefits and risks of electronic cigarettes (ECs). To better understand the risk-benefit ratio of ECs, more information is needed about net nicotine consumption and toxicant exposure of cigarette smokers switching to ECs.METHODS:Forty cigarette smokers (≥1 year of smoking) interested in switching to ECs but not necessarily quitting smoking were enrolled in a 4-week observational study and provided an e-Go C non-variable battery and refillable...
Author(s): Kim Pulvers (Lead); David R. Strong; Neal Benowitz; Nicole L. Nollen; Ashley Emami; Devan Romero; Jasjit Ahluwalia
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jan 5;20(2):206-214. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw333
Nicotine and Carbonyl Emissions From Popular Electronic Cigarette Products: Correlation to Liquid Composition and Design Characteristics.
INTRODUCTION:Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs.METHODS:Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration...
Author(s): Ahmad El-Hellani (Lead); Alan Shihadeh; Rima Baalbaki; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba; Soha Talih; Rachel El-Hage; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Nathalie Malek; Rima Nakkash
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jan 5;20(2):215-223. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw280.
Nicotine and carbonyl emissions from popular electronic cigarette products: Correlation to liquid composition and design
INTRODUCTION: Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. METHODS: Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine...
Author(s): Ahmad El-Hellani (Lead); Alan Shihadeh; Rima Baalbaki; Rola Salman; Soha Talih; Rachel El-Hage; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Nathalie Malek; Rima Nakkash
PubMed: Nicotine & Tobacco Research [Epub ahead of print]
In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. Methods: In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focus group...
Author(s): Joy Hart (Lead); Rose Robertson; Thomas Payne; Clara Sears; Kandi Walker; Alexander Lee; Allison Siu; Courteney Smith; Lindsay Tompkins; Delvon Mattingly; Allison Groom; Robyn Landry; Aida Giachello; Anshula Kesh
PubMed: Tob. Prev. Cessation 2018;4(January):3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/81857 (In press).
High-Intensity Cigarette Smoking Is Associated With Incident Diabetes Mellitus In Black Adults: The Jackson Heart Study.
BACKGROUND: Previous reports on whether smoking is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and incident diabetes mellitus in the Jackson Heart Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Jackson Heart Study participants enrolled at baseline without prevalent diabetes mellitus (n=2991) were classified by self-report as current smokers, past smokers (smoked ≥400 cigarettes/life and no...
Author(s): Wendy White (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Michael E. Hall; Rose Robertson; Andrew DeFilipis; Emilia Benjamin; Michael Blaha; Sina Kianoush; Loretta Cain; Wei Wang; Victoria Okhomina; Rachel Keith; Mahmoud Rifai; Michael Winniford; Adolfo Correa
PubMed: J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Jan 12; 7(2).
BACKGROUND: Outcome expectations are an important determinant of health behavior, according to Social Cognitive Theory; yet recent literature has not examined the relationship between outcome expectations and tobacco product use (e.g., use of cigarettes, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes, or smokeless tobacco). OBJECTIVES: This study examines if outcome expectations at baseline, among an adolescent cohort of never users of tobacco products, predicts tobacco product use (i.e., cigarettes, hookah...
Author(s): MeLisa R. Creamer (Lead); Kathleen Case; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Joanne Delk
PubMed: Subst Use Misuse. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1404104
Negative affect, message reactance and perceived risk: how do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions?
OBJECTIVE: Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs increase motivation to quit smoking. We sought to examine the potential mediating role of negative affect, message reactance (ie, an oppositional reaction to a message) and perceived risk in shaping quit intentions. METHODS: In 2014 and 2015, we randomly assigned 2149 adult US smokers to receive either pictorial warnings or text-only warnings applied to their cigarette packs for 4 weeks. Analyses used structural equation modelling with...
Author(s): Marissa G. Hall (Lead); Seth Noar; Noel Brewer; Marcella Boynton; Kurt Ribisl; P Sheeran; Jr H Parada; TO Johnson
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Dec 16. pii: tobaccocontrol-2017-053972. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053972
The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research...
Author(s): Ross Cornacchione (Lead); Seth Noar; Erin Sutfin
PubMed: Health Commun. 2017 Dec 13:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1407274.
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act requires the US government to inform the public about the quantities of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. A website can accomplish this task efficiently, but the site's user interface must be usable to benefit the general public. We conducted online experiments with national convenience samples of 1,451 US adult smokers and nonsmokers to examine the impact of four interface display elements: the chemicals, their associated health effects...
Author(s): Allison Lazard (Lead); Allison M. Schmidt; Noel Brewer; M. Justin Byron; Ellen Peters; H Vu
PubMed: Health Commun. 2017 Dec 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1407276. [Epub ahead of print]
Adolescents and young adults smoke waterpipe tobacco (WT) and cigarillos, at least in part, based on erroneous beliefs that these products are safer than cigarettes. To address this challenge, we used a systematic, three-phase process to develop a health communication campaign to discourage WT and cigarillo smoking among at-risk (tobacco users and susceptible non-users) 16- to 25-year-olds. In Phase 1, we used a national phone survey (N = 896) to determine salient message beliefs. Participants...
Author(s): Erin Sutfin (Lead); Allison Lazard; Kimberly Wiseman; Ross Cornacchione; Seth Noar; E Orlan; CK Suerken; BA Reboussin; M Wolfson
PubMed: Health Commun. 2017 Dec 13:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1407277
INTRODUCTION: Research shows that adolescents who are overweight or obese may be at greater risk of cigarette smoking, and that this relationship may vary by gender. However, this relationship is understudied for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Given the high rate of adolescent obesity and the rise in e-cigarette use in adolescents, this relationship should be investigated. METHODS: Data are from the third wave (collected October 2015-January 2016) of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco...
Author(s): Joanne Delk (Lead); MeLisa R. Creamer; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2017.09.007
Assessing the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Exposure to Social Media in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.
BACKGROUND:Social media platforms provide an indirect medium for encouraging e-cigarette use between individuals and also serve as a direct marketing tool from e-cigarette brands to potential users. E-cigarette users share information via social media that often contains product details or health-related claims.OBJECTIVE:Determine whether e-cigarette use is associated with exposure to e-cigarettes on social media in college students.METHODS:Data from a sample of 258 college students was obtained...
Author(s): Michael Sawdey (Lead); Linda Hancock; Marcus Messner; Elizabeth Prom-Wormley
PubMed: Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Dec 6;52(14):1910-1917. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1319390. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
This study examined the effect of exposure to "cigalike" (products resembling cigarettes) e-cigarette advertisements on adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. A nationally representative sample of 802 adolescents (13-17 years old) was randomly assigned to watch three e-cigarette or three control advertisements. Never-smokers who saw the e-cigarette advertisements (n = 352) reported significantly lower perceived risks of smoking than those in the control condition (n = 320)...
Author(s): Minji Kim (Lead); Pamela Ling; Lucy Popova; Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
PubMed: Health Commun. 2017 Dec 13:1-8. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1407230. [Epub ahead of print]
This study proposes a time-varying effect model that can be used to characterize gender-specific trajectories of health behaviors and conduct hypothesis testing for gender differences. The motivating examples demonstrate that the proposed model is applicable to not only multi-wave longitudinal studies but also short-term studies that involve intensive data collection. The simulation study shows that the accuracy of estimation of trajectory functions improves as the sample size and the number...
Author(s): Marzena Zaciera (Lead)
PubMed: Stat Methods Med Res. 2017 Dec;26(6):2812-2820. doi: 10.1177/0962280215610608. Epub 2015 Oct 16.
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. METHODS: The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the...
Author(s): Anh Ngo (Lead); Ce Shang; Frank Chaloupka; Kai-Wen Cheng
PubMed: Prev Med. 2017 Dec;105S:S10-S14. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.05.006. Epub 2017 May 11.
Measuring perceptions related to e-cigarettes: Important principles and next steps to enhance study validity.
Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing...
Author(s): Laura Gibson (Lead); Alison Breland; Annette Kaufman; Eric K. Soule; Grace Kong; MeLisa R. Creamer; Terry Pechacek; Jessica Pepper; Bonnie Halpern-Felsher; AL Giachello
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2017 Nov 20. pii: S0306-4603(17)30424-0. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.017
Establishing Consensus Survey Measures for ENDS Use: Current Challenges and Considerations for Researchers
The development and validation of survey measures for electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use has not kept pace with the burgeoning research on them. This, along with the diverse and evolving nature of ENDS, presents several unique measurement challenges and hampers surveillance and tobacco regulatory research efforts. In this commentary, we identify four important areas related to ENDS use (describing ENDS products; defining current use; evaluating frequency and quantity...
Author(s): Scott Weaver (Lead); Alexandra Loukas; Jessica Barrington-Trimis; Alexandra Loukas; Allison Glasser; Erin Sutfin; Thomas Payne; Megan Saddleson
PubMed: Addictive Behaviors. In press. 2017; 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.016
Mainstream Smoke Levels of Volatile Organic Compounds in 50 U.S. Domestic Cigarette Brands Smoked With the ISO and Canadian Intense Protocols
Introduction A significant portion of the increased risk of cancer and respiratory disease from exposure to cigarette smoke is attributed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 21 VOCs were quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke from 50 U.S. domestic brand varieties that included high market share brands and two Kentucky research cigarettes (3R4F and 1R5F). Methods Mainstream smoke was generated under ISO 3308 and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking protocols with linear...
Author(s): Daniel Y. Pazo (Lead); Kimberly Agnew-Heard; Maureen M. Sampson; Matthew Walters; Matthew Holman; Benjamin Blount; Clifford Watson; Fallon Moliere; Christopher Reese; David Chambers
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Sep;18(9):1886-94. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw118. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
Introduction Few studies have examined the perceptions of risk of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking among cigarette smokers, which is important for expanding regulatory policies and developing prevention programs. We examined current cigarette smokers’ perceived harm of LCC smoking, and determined whether these perceptions were associated with susceptibility and intention to continue smoking LCCs. Methods Data were from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of...
Author(s): Kymberle L. Sterling (Lead); Amy L. Nyman; Ban Majeed; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 19, Issue 11, 1 November 2017, Pages 1351–1358, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw244
INTRODUCTION: While research has documented associations between recall of point-of sale tobacco marketing and youth tobacco use, much of the research is cross-sectional and focused on cigarettes. The present longitudinal study examined recall of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and multiple types of tobacco use six months later. METHODS: The Texas Adolescent Tobacco Advertising and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) is a large-scale, representative study of 6th, 8th, and 10th...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead); Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Keryn Pasch; Christian Jackson; NE Nicksic; Samuel Opara
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntx237.
Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students' perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square...
Author(s): Clara Sears (Lead); Rose Robertson; Joy Hart; Kandi Walker
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Oct 23;14(10). pii: E1274. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14101274.
MicroRNA Signature of Cigarette Smoking and Evidence for a Putative Causal Role of MicroRNAs in Smoking-Related Inflammation and Target Organ Damage.
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases risk for multiple diseases. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression and may play a role in smoking-induced target organ damage. We sought to describe a microRNA signature of cigarette smoking and relate it to smoking-associated clinical phenotypes, gene expression, and lung inflammatory signaling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression profiling of 283 microRNAs was conducted on whole blood-derived RNA from 5023 Framingham Heart Study participants (54.0% women;...
Author(s): Christine Willinger (Lead); Martin Larson; Roby Joehanes; Emilia Benjamin; Jian Rong; Kahraman Tanriverdi; Paul Courchesne; Tianxiao Huan; Gregory Wasserman; Honghuang Lin; Josee Dupuis; Matthew R. Jones; George Chen; George T. O'Connor; Joseph Mizgerd; Jane Freedman; Daniel Levy
PubMed: Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2017;10
RATIONAL: E-cigarettes vaporize propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG), nicotine and flavorings. However, the long-term health effects of exposing lungs to vaped e-liquids are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of chronic vaping on pulmonary epithelia. METHODS: We performed research bronchoscopies on healthy non-smokers, cigarette smokers and e-cigarettes users (vapers) and obtained bronchial brush biopsies and lavage samples from these subjects for proteomic investigation...
Author(s): Arunava Ghosh (Lead); Robert Tarran; Temperance R. Rowell; Flori Sassano; Eric Davis; Raymond Coakley; Teresa Mascenik; Keith Rogers; Megan Webster; Hong Dang; Laura Herring; Alessandra Livragh-Butrico; Scott Van Buren; Lee Graves; Melissa Herman; Scott Randell; Neil Alexis
PubMed: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb 26. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201710-2033OC
Introduction Smokeless tobacco products such as snuff and snus are used worldwide. However, little is known about the systemic and cardiovascular toxicity of smokeless tobacco exposure. Methods Biomarkers of endothelial activation and injury, immune functions, platelet activation and insulin resistance were measured in 8-week old male C57BL/6 mice exposed to commercial snuff, CRP-2 reference snuff, commercial snus, CRP-1 reference snus, and nicotine in drinking water (100 µg/mL) for...
Author(s): Maria Malovichko (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Daniel Conklin; Timothy O'Toole; Sanjay Srivastava; Shesh Rai; Zhengzhi Xie; Srinivas Sithu; Iris Zeller; Tatiana Krivokhizhina; Pawel Lorkiewicz ; Abhinav Agarwal; Nalinie Wickramasinghe; Jasmit Shah
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017: ntx230-ntx230.
Objectives: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to report quantities of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in cigarette smoke in an "understandable and not misleading" manner. If smokers mistakenly believe that HPHC quantities indicate degree of harmfulness, they might switch brands instead of quitting. Methods: In a national online survey, 1709 adult smokers viewed facts about HPHCs and their quantities, with variations in content (numbers...
Author(s): Jessica Pepper (Lead); James M. Nonnemaker; Terry Pechacek; Jessica DeFrank; Matthew Eggers; Brian Bradfield; Isaac Lipkus; Lauren McCormack
PubMed: Tobacco Regulatory Science, Volume 3, Number 4, October 2017, pp. 388-407(20)
BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics and psychometric properties of measures used in pictorial cigarette pack warning experiments and provide recommendations for future studies. METHODS: Our systematic review identified 68 pictorial cigarette pack warning experiments conducted between 2000 and 2016 in 22 countries. Two independent coders coded all studies on study features, including sample characteristics, theoretical framework, and constructs assessed. We also coded measurement...
Author(s): DB Francis (Lead); Marissa G. Hall; Seth Noar; Noel Brewer; Kurt Ribisl
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Oct 1;19(10):1127-1137. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx082.
Objectives: In the United States, print advertisements for smokeless tobacco (SLT) feature a large warning covering 20% of the advertisement space, whereas cigarette and e-cigarette advertisements cover approximately 4%. We explored how warning size affects adolescent boys' recollection of the warning, brand-relevant advertisement features, and product risks. Methods: Overall, 1220 adolescent males (ages 11-16) viewed SLT, cigarette, and e-cigarette advertisements and were asked...
Author(s): Abigail Evans (Lead); Megan E. Roberts; Ellen Peters; Brittany Keller-Hamilton; Christopher Loiewski; Michael Slater; Bo Lu; Amy Ferketich
PubMed: Tobacco Regulatory Science, Volume 4, Number 3, May 2018, pp. 79-87(9) Publisher: Tobacco Regulatory Science Group DOI: https://doi.org/10.18001/TRS.4.3.7
OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette.METHODS:We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure...
Author(s): Samera Hamad (Lead); Marielle C. Brinkman; Sydney Gordon; Pamela Clark; Margaret Tefft; Nathan Johnson
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Oct;3(4):459-478. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.4.7.
Electronic cigarette user plasma nicotine concentration, puff topography, heart rate, and subjective effects: Influence of liquid nicotine concentration and user experience.
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval)...
Author(s): Marzena Hiler (Lead); Alison Breland; Alexa Lopez; Carolina P Ramôa; Tory Spindle; Alan Shihadeh; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Thomas Eissenberg; Sarah Maloney; Thokozeni Lipato
PubMed: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Oct;25(5):380-392. doi: 10.1037/pha0000140.
OBJECTIVES:To measure e-cigarettes' abuse liability compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes under flavor and message conditions amenable to regulation.METHODS:Two studies used 2×2 within-subjects designs with factors of e-cigarette flavor (Study 1: tobacco vs. menthol; Study 2: cherry vs. unflavored) and message (Study 1: reduced harm vs. no message; Study 2: reduced exposure to carcinogens vs. no message) with cigarette smokers (N(total) = 36). Linear mixed effects models assessed abuse...
Author(s): Andrew J Barnes (Lead); Caroline Cobb; Thomas Eissenberg; Rose Bono; Rebecca Lester
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Oct;3(4):374-387. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.4.1.
The association between cigarette smoking and inflammation: The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study.
To inform the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products, we sought to identify sensitive biomarkers of tobacco-induced subclinical cardiovascular damage by testing the cross-sectional associations of smoking with 17 biomarkers of inflammation in 2,702 GENOA study participants belonging to sibships ascertained on the basis of hypertension. Cigarette smoking was assessed by status, intensity (number of cigarettes per day), burden (pack-years of smoking), and time since quitting. We modeled...
Author(s): M Tibuakuu (Lead); Michael E. Hall; Rifai Al; Martha White; Andrew DeFilipis; Lindsay M. Reynolds; MJ Blaha; S Kianoush; D Kamimura; KR Butler; TH Mosley; ST Turner; IJ Kullo
PubMed: PLoS One. 2017 Sep 18;12(9):e0184914. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184914. eCollection 2017.
Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke) known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with...
Author(s): Wes Abplanalp (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Natasha DeJarnett; Daniel Conklin; Daniel Riggs; Timothy O'Toole; Sanjay Srivastava; James McCracken; Shesh Rai; Zhengzhi Xie
PubMed: PLoS One. 2017 Sep 8;12(9):e0183602. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183602. eCollection 2017
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine...
Author(s): Thomas Sussan (Lead); Joanna Cohen; Fatima Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Robert Wise; Michael Blaha; Janet Holbrook; Shyam Biswal
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2017 Sep 8;17(1):686. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4671-3.
Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing...
Author(s): Scott Weaver (Lead); Terry Pechacek; Michael Eriksen; John Heath; Catherine Kemp
PubMed: Public Health Rep. 2017 Sep/Oct;132(5):545-548. doi: 10.1177/0033354917723597.
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitic and emphysematous components. In one biophysical model, the concentration of mucin on the airway surfaces is hypothesized to be a key variable that controls mucus transport in healthy persons versus cessation of transport in persons with muco-obstructive lung diseases. Under this model, it is postulated that a high mucin concentration produces the sputum and disease progression that are characteristic...
Author(s): Mehemet Keismer (Lead); R. Graham Barr; Amina Ford; Agathe Ceppe; Giorgia Radicioni; Rui Cao; William Davis; Eugene Bleecker
PubMed: N Engl J Med. 2017;377(10):911-22. Epub 2017/09/07. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1701632
Access to Tobacco Among California High School Students: The Role of Family Members, Peers, and Retail Venues.
PURPOSE:The purpose of the study was to determine from whom and where adolescents obtained tobacco, including cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah.METHODS:California adolescents (N = 772; 63.19% female; mean age = 16.13 years, SD = 1.61; 26.44% white, 22.12% Asian/Pacific Islander, 36.65% Hispanic, and 14.79% other) were surveyed about their access to different tobacco products.RESULTS:Adolescents were significantly more likely to obtain tobacco from friends (54.9%) than...
Author(s): Matthew Meyers (Lead); Bonnie Halpern-Felsher; Kevin Delucchi
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2017 Sep;61(3):385-388. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) changed during 2014-2016 and examine factors associated with use among adults in the United States (US). METHODS: Data were obtained from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys of probability samples representative of US adults in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Change over time in current (past 30 day) STP use was examined using pairwise comparisons of proportions and multivariable...
Author(s): Dina Jones (Lead); Kymberle L. Sterling; Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Ban Majeed; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Am J Health Behav. 2017 Sep 1;41(5):608-617. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.41.5.10.
“Their Packaging Has Always Been Like a Power”: A Qualitative Study of U.S. Smokers’ Perceptions of Cigarette Pack Visual Design Features to Inform Product Regulation.
Cigarette packaging matters to consumer behavior. However, it is less clear which changes to packaging design would be salient for adult smokers. Such information is critically important to regulators in the United States who are charged with reviewing new tobacco products for their impact on population health. In this qualitative study, U.S. adult smokers (n = 33) participated in six telephone-based focus groups in March 2017. Separate groups were comprised of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)...
Author(s): Joseph G. L. Lee (Lead); Kyle Gregory; Paige Averett; Tiffany Blanchflower; Nunzio Landi
PubMed: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017;14(10):1234. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14101234.
Association Between Smoking and Serum GlycA and High‐Sensitivity C‐Reactive Protein Levels: The Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil).
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is suggested to be a central feature of atherosclerosis, particularly among smokers. We studied whether inflammatory biomarkers GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with cigarette smoking. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 11 509 participants, 6774 from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 4735 from ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) were included. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between...
Author(s): S Kianoush (Lead); Michael E. Hall; Andrew DeFilipis; MJ Blaha; MS Bittencourt; IM Bensenor; PA Lotufo; M Tibuakuu; SR Jones; PP Toth; JD Otvos; PHN Harada
PubMed: J Amer Heart Assoc: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. 2017;6(8):e006545.
The association of e-cigarette use with exposure to nickel and chromium: A preliminary study of non-invasive biomarkers.
BACKGROUND: Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) are components of e-cigarette heating coils. Whether e-cigarettes increase metal internal dose, however, is unknown. We assessed the association of e-cigarette use patterns and of e-liquid and aerosol metal concentrations with Ni and Cr biomarker levels in e-cigarette users from Maryland. METHODS: We recruited 64 e-cigarette users from December 2015 to March 2016. We collected urine, saliva, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), data on e-cigarette...
Author(s): Angela Aherrera (Lead); Joanna Cohen; Ana Navas-Acien; Stephanie Jarmul; Ana Rule ; P Olmedo; M Grau-Perez; S Tanda; W Goessler; R Chen
PubMed: Environ Res. 2017 Nov;159:313-320. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.014. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine is normally associated with counteranions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counteranions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence...
Author(s): Ahmad El-Hellani (Lead); Alan Shihadeh; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba; Soha Talih; Rachel El-Hage
PubMed: Chemical Research in Toxicology, 308, 1577-1581
In the past 5 years, e-cigarette use has been increasing rapidly, particularly in youth and young adults. Due to the novelty of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) and e-cigarette liquids (e-liquids), research on their chemo-physical properties is still in its infancy. Here, we describe a previously unknown and potentially useful property of e-liquids, namely their autofluorescence. We performed an emission scan at 9 excitation wavelengths common to fluorescent microscopy and found (i) that autofluorescence...
Author(s): Eric Davis (Lead); Robert Tarran; Flori Sassano; Henry Goodell
PubMed: Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):7459. Epub 2017/08/09. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07862-w
The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) has emerged as popular electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDs). However, the general safety and validity of e-cigarettes for nicotine delivery efficacy are still not well understood. This study developed a new method for efficient measurement of nicotine levels in both the liquids (e-liquids) used in e-cigarettes and the aerosols generated from the e-cigarettes. Protonation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen of nicotine molecules by addition of excess hydrochloric...
Author(s): MA Ogunwale (Lead); Daniel Conklin; MH Nantz; Xa Fu; Y Chen; WS Theis
PubMed: Anal Methods. 2017 Aug 7;9(29):4261-4266. doi: 10.1039/C7AY00501F. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
Ethnic Discrimination and Smoking-Related Outcomes among Former and Current Arab Male Smokers in Israel: The Buffering Effects of Social Support.
We examined the relationship between two forms of ethnic discrimination-interpersonal and institutional-and smoking outcomes among Arab men in Israel, and whether social support buffered these associations. We used cross-sectional data of adult Arab men, current or former smokers (n = 954). Mixed-effects regression models estimated the association between discrimination and smoking status, and nicotine dependence among current smokers. Interpersonal discrimination was associated with higher...
Author(s): Amira Osman (Lead); N Daoud; JF Thrasher; BA Bell; KM Walsemann
PubMed: J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Aug 7. doi: 10.1007/s10903-017-0638-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Biomarkers of Chronic Acrolein Inhalation Exposure in Mice: Implications for Tobacco Product-Induced Toxicity.
Exposure to tobacco smoke, which contains several harmful and potentially harmful constituents such as acrolein increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although high acrolein levels induce pervasive cardiovascular injury, the effects of low-level exposure remain unknown and sensitive biomarkers of acrolein toxicity have not been identified. Identification of such biomarkers is essential to assess the toxicity of acrolein present at low levels in the ambient air or in new tobacco products...
Author(s): Daniel Conklin (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Timothy O'Toole; Sanjay Srivastava; Shesh Rai; P Haberzettl; Srinivas Sithu; Maria Malovichko; Iris Zeller; TP Das; Tatiana Krivokhizhina; BH Lynch; Pawel Lorkiewicz ; Abhinav Agarwal; Nalinie Wickramasinghe; Jasmit Shah
PubMed: Toxicol Sci. 2017 May 8. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx095.
Tobacco exposure-related alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in human monocytes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in blood leukocytes are potential biomarkers of harm and mediators of the deleterious effects of tobacco exposure. However, methodological issues, including the use of self-reported smoking status and mixed cell types have made previously identified alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression difficult to interpret. In this study, we examined associations of tobacco exposure with DNA methylation and gene expression, utilizing a biomarker...
Author(s): Lindsay M. Reynolds (Lead); Michael Blaha; Kurt Lohman; Gary Pittman; R. Graham Barr; Gloria Chi; Joel Kaufman; Ma Wan; Douglas Bell; Carlos Rodriguez; Yongmei Liu
PubMed: Epigenetics. 2018 Jan 16:1-9. doi:10.1080/15592294.2017.1403692. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE: Little is known about the nature and extent of adolescents' exposure to tobacco- and e-cigarette-related communications on social media. In this study, we describe the prevalence and correlates of youth exposure and engagement with tobacco- and e-cigarette-related social media. METHODS: Data are from the baseline survey of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system, a cross-sectional sample of sixth, eighth, and 10th graders (n = 3907, N = 461,097). Weighted...
Author(s): Hellani El (Lead)
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2017 Sept;61(3):371-377. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.04.003
Relationship between Personality Traits and Nicotine Dependence in Male and Female Smokers of African-American and European-American Samples
AIMS: Personality characteristics are linked to nicotine dependence (ND). It remains unclear whether these factors differ across African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) male and female smokers. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between personality traits and smoking status, as well as the degree of ND, in AA and EA male and female samples. METHODS: A total of 5,040 participants (AA: N = 3,737, female = 54.31%; EA: N = 1,313, female = 64.51%) were...
Author(s): Jung-Seok Choi (Lead); Thomas Payne; M Jennie ; Li Ming D
PubMed: Front Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 18;8:122. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00122. eCollection 2017.
Chronic tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lung, tobacco smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, and also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses both emphysema and chronic bronchitis. E-cigarettes (E-Cigs), or electronic nicotine delivery systems, were developed over a decade ago and are designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Although tobacco smoking has declined since the 1950s, E-Cig...
Author(s): Temperance R. Rowell (Lead); Stella Juhyun Lee; Robert Tarran; Gary Glish; AH Herring; Rachel Nethery; SL Reeber; RA Harris
PubMed: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Dec 15;309(12):L1398-409. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00272.2015
BACKGROUND: Computerized surveys present many advantages over paper surveys. However, school-based adolescent research questionnaires still mainly rely on paper-and-pencil surveys as access to computers in schools is often not practical. Tablet-assisted self-interviews (TASI) present a possible solution, but their use is largely untested. This paper presents a method for and our experiences with implementing a TASI in a school setting. METHODS: A TASI was administered to 3907 middle...
Author(s): Joanne Delk (Lead); Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Tala Fakhouri; Katelyn Muir
PubMed: J Sch Health. 2017 Jul;87(7):506-512. doi: 10.1111/josh.12521
OBJECTIVES: Our study explores the experiences of early career and senior scientists regarding mentorship and career trajectories in tobacco regulatory science (TRS). METHODS: We conducted 22 phone interviews with early career and senior tobacco regulatory scientists from July 2015 to January 2016. All interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide and analyzed using a thematic approach by 2 independent coders. RESULTS: TRS presents specific opportunities and challenges...
Author(s): Abigail Russo (Lead); Andrea C. Villanti; Stanton Glantz; Lauren Collins; Amy Solis; Haneen Abudayyeh; Melanie Chansky; Heather Wipfli; Teresa Kern; Johnathan Samet; Rachel Lawley; Emilia Benjamin
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Jul;3(3):280-292. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.3.4.
The standard e-cigarette involves an electric heating coil that vaporises a liquid solution consisting of propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavourants and, frequently, nicotine. Typically, the liquid is delivered to the heating coil via saturated wicking material. However, ‘dripping’ is another method that involves the application of liquid to the coil of a direct drip atomiser or rebuildable dripping atomiser.1 2Users report that dripping provides greater vapour yields...
Author(s): Paul Harrell (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Jul 22. pii: tobaccocontrol-2017-053817. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053817. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE:To identify the appealing components of cigar packaging among youth.METHODS:We conducted 8 focus groups among cigar users, separated by sex and age group (ie, adolescents, young adults) in Connecticut between February and July, 2016. Participants were shown cigar packages and instructed to circle aspects of the images on the packages that appealed to them independently and a group discussion followed.RESULTS:The appealing components identified were flavors (46.8%), price promotions...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Krysten Bold; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo; Heather LaVallee
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Jul;3(3):333-346. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.3.9.
OBJECTIVES:Beliefs that flavored smokeless tobacco (ST) is more pleasant, less potent, or otherwise easier to use could contribute to youth initiation. We evaluated associations between perceived ease-of-use of flavored ST (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) and ST initiation susceptibility in a representative sample of US youth.METHODS:Among 7,718 tobacco never-users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (age: 12-17; collected: 2013-2014), we compared 4 ST susceptibility...
Author(s): Benjamin Chaffee (Lead); Elizabeth Couch; Stuart Gansky; Janelle Urata
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Jul;3(3):367-373. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.3.12.
Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modern tobacco regulatory science requires an understanding of which biomarkers of cardiovascular injury are most sensitive to cigarette smoking exposure. METHODS: We studied self-reported current smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Smoking intensity was defined by number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine levels. Subclinical cardiovascular injury was assessed using markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin...
Author(s): S Kianoush (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Rifai Al; Andrew DeFilipis; MJ Blaha; MY Yakoob; MS Bittencourt; BB Duncan; IM Bensenor; PA Lotufo
PubMed: J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Jun 24;6(6). pii: e005088.
Smoking intensity and duration is associated with cardiac structure and function: the ECHOcardiographic Study of Hispanics/Latinos.
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in smokers and this relationship is complicated by the multiplicity of cardiovascular effects of smoking. However, the relationship between intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and echocardiographic measures of right and left ventricular structure and function has been poorly studied. METHODS: We examined ECHO-SOL (Echocardiographic Study of Hispanics/Latinos) participants, a subset of the Hispanic Community Health...
Author(s): JA Leigh (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Rose Robertson; Emelia Benjamin; MJ Blaha; CJ Rodriguez; RC Kaplan; K Swett; P Balfour; MM Kansal; GA Talavera; K Perreira
PubMed: Open Heart. 2017 Jun 14;4(2):e000614. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2017-000614. eCollection 2017.
Prevalence of use and perceptions of risk of novel and other alternative tobacco products among sexual minority adults: Results from an online national survey, 2014-2015.
Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB]) populations experience disparities in cigarette use, but sparse evidence exists about novel and other alternative tobacco product use. In this study, we compared rates of novel and other alternative tobacco product use, risk perceptions, and worldview between LGB and heterosexual (HET) adults. An online survey administered in 2014-2015, using a weighted probability sample of 11,525 U.S. adults, assessed awareness of tobacco products; ever...
Author(s): Pratibha Nayak (Lead); Terry Pechacek; LF Salazar; KK Kota
PubMed: Prev Med. 2017 Nov;104:71-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.05.024. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hookah smoking and perceptions of harm among U.S. adults. Data were pooled from the Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys conducted separately in the summers of 2014 and 2015, among a probability sample selected from an online research panel. Descriptive, logistic regression, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. In 2014/2015, prevalence of ever and past 30-day hookah smoking among U.S...
Author(s): Ban Majeed (Lead); Kymberle L. Sterling; Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;69:78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.032. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
The Use of E-cigarettes Among School-Going Adolescents in a Predominantly Rural Environment of Central Appalachia.
E-cigarette use among youth in the United States (U.S.) continues to increase. In the rural Northeast Tennessee, where prevalence of tobacco use is higher than national and state averages, there is no literature on e-cigarette use to inform policies and programs. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and examine association of e-cigarette use with two tobacco products among school-going adolescents. Data from 894 participants of a school-based survey conducted in 2016...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead); Daniel Owusu; Jocelyn Aibangbee; Candice Collins; Crystal Robertson; Liang Wang; Mary Littleton; Rafie Boghozian; Vicki Casenburg; Hadii Mamudu
PubMed: J Community Health. 2017 Jun;42(3):624-631. doi: 10.1007/s10900-016-0297-0.
Cytosolic Ca2+ is a universal second messenger that is involved in many processes throughout the body, including the regulation of cell growth/cell division, apoptosis, and the secretion of both ions, and macromolecules. Tobacco smoke exerts multiple effects on airway epithelia and we have previously shown that Kentucky reference cigarette smoke exposure elevated the second messenger Ca2+, leading to dysfunctional ion secretion. In this study, we tested whether little cigar and commercial...
Author(s): Flori Sassano (Lead); Arunava Ghosh; Robert Tarran
PubMed: Appl In Vitro Toxicol. 2017 Jun 1; 3(2):193-198. doi: 10.1089/aivt.2016.0039.
PURPOSE:Women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast are at greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and other causes than from breast cancer, yet associations between health-related behaviors and mortality outcomes after DCIS have not been well studied.METHODS:We examined the association of body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with mortality among 1925 women with DCIS in the Wisconsin In Situ Cohort study. Behaviors were self-reported...
PubMed: J Cancer Surviv. 2017 Jun;11(3):320-328. doi: 10.1007/s11764-016-0590-z. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
Comparison of Ecological Momentary Assessment Versus Direct Measurement of E-Cigarette Use With a Bluetooth-Enabled E-Cigarette: A Pilot Study.
BACKGROUND:Assessing the frequency and intensity of e-cigarette use presents special challenges beyond those posed by cigarette use. Accurate measurement of e-cigarette consumption, puff duration, and the stability of these measures over time will be informative for estimating the behavioral and health effects of e-cigarette use.OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of self-reported e-cigarette puff counts collected via ecological momentary assessment (EMA)...
Author(s): Jennifer L Pearson (Lead); Raymond Niaura; Babita Das; Hoda Elmasry; Sabrina Smiley; Leslie Rubin; Teresa DeAtly; Emily Harvey; Yitong Zhou; David Abrams
PubMed: JMIR Res Protoc. 2017 May 29;6(5):e84. doi: 10.2196/resprot.6501.
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoke contains at least 93 chemicals or "constituents" that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified as harmful or potentially harmful to human health. Our study sought to identify which constituent disclosure message elements are most effective in discouraging people from smoking. METHODS: Three hundred eighty-eight current smokers ages 18 and older completed an online survey in February 2015. We randomized participants to respond to one of two sets...
Author(s): DE Kelley (Lead); Irina Stepanov; Seth Noar; Noel Brewer; Marcella Boynton; Jennifer Mendel; Kurt Ribisl; Morgan Johnson; LA Nylander-French
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 May 17. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx109. [Epub ahead of print]
The relationships between sensation seeking and a spectrum of e-cigarette use behaviors in Texas adolescents: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses specific to Texas adolescents.
INTRODUCTION: Sensation seeking is strongly associated with cigarette use in adolescents. However, few studies have investigated its relationship with adolescent e-cigarette use. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sensation seeking and a variety of e-cigarette use behaviors among Texas adolescents. METHODS: This study utilized two waves of data collected 6months apart through the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS)...
Author(s): Kathleen Case (Lead); Alexandra Loukas; Adriana Pérez; Anna Wilkinson; MeLisa R. Creamer; Alexandra Loukas; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Andrew Springer
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2017 Oct;73:151-157. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.007.
Mechanisms of atherogenesis have been studied extensively in genetically engineered mice with disturbed cholesterol metabolism such as those lacking either the LDL receptor (Ldlr) or apolipoprotein E (apoe). Few other animal models of atherosclerosis are available. WT rabbits or rats, even on high-fat or high-cholesterol diets, develop sparse atherosclerotic lesions. We examined the effects of Ldlr deletion on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesion formation in Sprague-Dawley rats...
Author(s): A Brenner (Lead)
PubMed: J Clin Invest Insight. 2017 May 4;2(9). pii: 86442
In many research studies, tobacco users are asked to forgo tobacco during study appointments to avoid interrupting study sessions with breaks or disrupting research flow and efficiency. Although onset of withdrawal varies according to levels of nicotine dependence, symptoms commonly begin within 30 minutes of abstinence.1 Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal include irritability, restlessness, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating.2 Nicotine cravings pose a particular problem in tobacco research...
Author(s): Ellen Jones (Lead); Adam Goldstein; Kristen Jarman
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 May 2. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntx090. [Epub ahead of print]
INTRODUCTION: This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. METHODS: Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data...
Author(s): Charles Courtemanche (Lead); Makayla Palmer; Michael Pesko
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2017 May;52(5):e139-e146. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.11.019. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
E-cigarette nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), also known as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were introduced to the global market around 2007 (Pauly et al., 2007). The popularity of these products has soared rapidly, generating $900 million in revenue in 2014. Market analysts predict that the e-cigarette industry could be worth $10 billion by 2018 (Herzog, 2015).With the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, the overall impact of e-cigarettes on public health has been heavily debated among...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 May 1;174:215-221. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.001. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
Abstract Little cigars (LCs) are regulated differently than cigarettes, allowing them to be potentially targeted at youth/young adults. We exposed human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs) to air or whole tobacco smoke from cigarettes vs. LCs. Chronic smoke exposure increased the number of dead cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion and decreased apical cilia, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein levels, and transepithelial...
Author(s): Arunava Ghosh (Lead); Stella Juhyun Lee; Gary Glish; Hong Dang; SH Abdelwahab; SL Reidel; AJ Marklew; AJ Garrison; AH Herring; M Kesimer
PubMed: Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 27;7:46239. doi: 10.1038/srep46239
Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four...
Author(s): Kimberly Agnew-Heard (Lead); James M. Nonnemaker; Matthew Farrelly; J Guillory; P Shafer; S Parvanta; J Holloway
PubMed: J Health Commun. 2017 Jun;22(6):477-487. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2017.1311970. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
Addition of flavors reduces the harsh taste of tobacco, facilitating the initiation and maintenance of addiction among youths. Flavored cigarettes (except menthol) are now banned. However, the legislation on little cigars remains unclear and flavored little cigars are currently available for purchase. Since inhaled tobacco smoke directly exerts toxic effects on the lungs, we tested whether non-flavored and flavored little cigar smoke exposure had the potential for harm in cultured pulmonary...
Author(s): Arunava Ghosh (Lead); Robert Tarran; AH Herring; Rachel Nethery
PubMed: Cell Death Discov. 2017 Apr 24;3:17019. doi: 10.1038/cddiscovery.2017.19. eCollection 2017.
Smokeless tobacco products harbor viable and diverse bacterial communities that differ across products and brands
Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted...
Author(s): Eoghan M. Smyth (Lead); Prachi Kulkarni; Emma Claye; Emmanuel Mongodin; Amy Sapkota; Stephen Stanfill; Robert Tyx; Cynthia Maddox
PubMed: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (in press)
Flavored E-cigarette Liquids Reduce Proliferation and Viability in the CALU3 Airway Epithelial Cell Line
E-cigarettes are generally thought of as a safer smoking alternative to traditional cigarettes. However, little is known about the effects of e-cigarette liquids (e-liquids) on the lung. Since over 7,000 unique flavors have been identified for purchase in the United States, our goal was to conduct a screen that would test whether different flavored e-liquids exhibited different toxicant profiles. We tested the effects of 13 different flavored e-liquids [with nicotine and propylene glycol/vegetable...
Author(s): Ted Niemiec (Lead); Stella Juhyun Lee; Robert Tarran; AH Herring; Rachel Nethery; SL Reeber
PubMed: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Apr 20:ajplung.00392.2016. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00392.2016. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: In reviewing the first set of pictorial warning labels in the USA, the courts equated textual labels with facts and information, and images with emotion. This study tested the differences in perceived informativeness and emotion between textual and pictorial cigarette warning labels. METHODS: An online study with 1838 US adults who were non-smokers (n=764), transitioning smokers (quit smoking in the past 2 years or currently trying to quit, n=505) or current smokers (n=569)...
Author(s): Lucy Popova (Lead); Daniel Owusu; Desmond Jenson; Torsten Neilands
PubMed: Tobacco Control Published Online First: 20 April 2017 doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053563
Background: The majority of smokers regret ever starting to smoke, yet the vast majority continue to smoke despite the fact that smoking kills nearly 50% of lifetime users. This study examined the relationships between regret and smoker characteristics, quit history, risk perceptions, experiential thinking, and beliefs and intentions at time of smoking initiation. Methods: Data from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey, a nationally representative survey of United States adults...
Author(s): Pratibha Nayak (Lead); Terry Pechacek; Paul Slovic; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Apr 6;14(4). pii: E390. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14040390.
Background: African American young adults are at high risk for dual use of cigarettes and cigars. Limited work has explored and characterized the reasons for use in this population and their relative importance for initiation and current smoking of these products. Method: Reasons for cigarette and cigar use were systematically explored and categorized using a mixed methods participatory approach called concept mapping. A series of in-person group sessions were held with 30 African American...
Author(s): Erin L. Mead (Lead); Thomas Kirchner; Sarah L. Johnson; Junaed Siddiqui; James Butler III; Robert H. Feldman
PubMed: Addiction Research & Theory. 2017 Aug 31. doi: 10.1080/16066359.2017.1366456
Addiction, Cessation, & Harm Reduction: Primary Care Provider Knowledge & Perceptions of Electronic Nicotine Delivery System
Aim: This study aimed to understand the knowledge and perceptions related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among healthcare providers (HCP) practicing in the family and general practice settings. Methods: HCPs that practice in the family and general practice settings were recruited for this study using a web-based panel of US physicians. The final non-probability sample totaled 80 participants practicing in the family or general settings within the US. Each participant completed...
Author(s): Brandon Talley (Lead); Pratibha Nayak; Shanta Dube; Michael Eriksen; Rachna Chandora
PubMed: Osteopathic Family Physician. 2017 March/April; 9(2):10-16.
OBJECTIVE:To understand reasons for cigarillo initiation and cigarillo manipulation methods among adolescents.METHODS:We conducted surveys in 8 Connecticut high schools to assess reasons for trying a cigarillo and cigarillo manipulation methods. We used multivariable logistic regressions to assess associations with demographics and tobacco use status.RESULTS:Among ever cigarillo users (N = 697, 33.6% girls, 16.7 years old [SD = 1.14], 62.1% White), top reasons for trying a cigarillo were curiosity...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Krysten Bold; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo; Patricia Simon
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Apr;3(2 Suppl 1):S48-S58. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.2(Suppl1).6. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use electricity to power a heating element that aerosolizes a liquid containing solvents, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine for user inhalation. ECIGs have evolved rapidly in the past 8 years, and the changes in product design and liquid constituents affect the resulting toxicant yield in the aerosol and delivery to the user. This rapid evolution has been accompanied by dramatic increases in ECIG use prevalence in many countries among adults...
Author(s): Alison Breland (Lead); Alexa Lopez; Carolina P Ramôa; Eric K. Soule; Ahmad El-Hellani; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Apr;1394(1):5-30. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12977. Epub 2016 Jan 15.
The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use Conditions.
INTRODUCTION:Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions.METHODS:Plasma nicotine...
Author(s): Tory Spindle (Lead); Alison Breland; Marzena Hiler; Alan Shihadeh; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Apr 1;19(4):469-476. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw174.
OBJECTIVES:Behavioral economic purchase tasks, which estimate demand for drugs, have been successfully developed for cigarettes and are widely used. However, a validated purchase task does not yet exist for e-cigarettes. The aim of this project was to identify the relevant units for an e-cigarette purchase task (E-CPT).METHODS:Focus groups (N=28 participants in 7 groups, 2-7 participants per group) consisting of current e-cigarette users were conducted. Participants discussed their daily use...
Author(s): Junbae Jee (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Apr;3(2):139-150. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.2.2.
INTRODUCTION: Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public's opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. METHODS: The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in user-generated...
Author(s): Clara Sears (Lead); Joy Hart; Kandi Walker; Alexander Lee; Allison Siu; Courteney Smith
PubMed: Tob Prev Cessat. 2017 Apr;3. pii: 10
Electronic cigarette use and uptake of cigarette smoking: A longitudinalexamination of U.S. college students
Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use prevalence is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults but recent longitudinal data for college/university students are scarce. Furthermore, the extent that e-cigarette use is associated with the onset of cigarette smoking and the factors that lead to the uptake of e-cigarettes in college students has not been explored. Methods 3757 participants from a Mid-Atlantic university (women: 66%; White: 45%; Black: 21%; Asian: 19%; Hispanic/Latino:...
Author(s): Tory Spindle (Lead); Marzena Hiler; Thomas Eissenberg; Megan Cooke; Kenneth Kendler; Danielle Dick
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2017 Apr;67:66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.12.009. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
Acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde are the principal toxic aldehydes present in cigarette smoke and contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease and noncancerous pulmonary disease. The rapid growth of the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has raised concerns over emissions of these harmful aldehydes. This work determines emissions of these aldehydes in both free and bound (aldehyde-hemiacetal) forms and other carbonyls from the use of e-cigarettes. A novel silicon microreactor...
Author(s): MA Ogunwale (Lead); Yu-Ching Cheng; Daniel Conklin; M Li; MV Raju Ramakrishnam; MH Nantz; Xa Fu
PubMed: ACS Omega. 2017 Mar 31;2(3):1207-1214.
Temporal Variations in Cigarette Tobacco Bacterial Community Composition and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content Are Influenced by Brand and Storage Conditions
Tobacco products, specifically cigarettes, are home to microbial ecosystems that may play an important role in the generation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), as well as the onset of multiple adverse human health effects associated with the use of these products. Therefore, we conducted time-series experiments with five commercially available brands of cigarettes that were either commercially mentholated, custom-mentholated, user-mentholated, or non-mentholated. To mimic...
Author(s): Jessica Chopyk (Lead); Pamela Clark; Suhana Chattopadhyay; Prachi Kulkarni; Eoghan M. Smyth; Lauren Hittle; Joseph N. Paulson; Mihai Pop; Stephanie Buehler; Emmanuel Mongodin; Amy Sapkota
PubMed: Front Microbiol. 2017 Mar 7;8:358. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00358.
The introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in 2006 has created an entirely new public health dilemma. Although some public health activists believe that e-cigarettes represent a new addition to the armory of tobacco control and harm reduction, others are unsure how the widespread use of e-cigarettes will affect the prevalence of nicotine addiction and premature mortality owing to tobacco product use. The central issue in the debate is the disease risk imposed by e-cigarettes...
Author(s): Aruni Bhatnagar (Lead)
PubMed: JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Mar 2(3) 237-238.
Introduction Although the impact of long-term use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on health is still unknown, current scientific evidence indicates that e-cigarettes are less harmful than combustible cigarettes. The study examined whether perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes and perceived addictiveness have changed during 2012–2015 among U.S. adults. Methods Data were from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions surveys of probability samples representative of U.S. adults in...
Author(s): Ban Majeed (Lead); Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Kyle Gregory; Carrie Whitney; Paul Slovic; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2017 Mar;52(3):331-338. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.039. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
Introduction Although the impact of long-term use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on health is still unknown, current scientific evidence indicates that e-cigarettes are less harmful than combustible cigarettes. The study examined whether perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes and perceived addictiveness have changed during 2012–2015 among U.S. adults. Methods Data were from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions surveys of probability samples representative of U.S. adults in 2012...
Author(s): Ban Majeed (Lead); Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Kyle Gregory; Carrie Whitney; Paul Slovic; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2017 March;52(3):331-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.08.039. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
Mentholation affects the cigarette microbiota by selecting for bacteria resistant to harsh environmental conditions and selecting against potential bacterial pathogens.
Background There is a paucity of data regarding the microbial constituents of tobacco products and their impacts on public health. Moreover, there has been no comparative characterization performed on the bacterial microbiota associated with the addition of menthol, an additive that has been used by tobacco manufacturers for nearly a century. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted bacterial community profiling on tobacco from user- and custom-mentholated/non-mentholated cigarette pairs...
Author(s): Jessica Chopyk (Lead); Pamela Clark; Suhana Chattopadhyay; Prachi Kulkarni; Emma Claye; Kelsey Babik; Molly C. Reid; Eoghan M. Smyth; Lauren Hittle; Joseph N. Paulson; Raul Cruz-Cano; Mihai Pop; Stephanie Buehler; Emmanuel Mongodin
PubMed: Microbiome. 2017 Feb 15;5(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0235-0.
Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies...
Author(s): John Tauras (Lead); Frank Chaloupka; Kai-Wen Cheng; Richard Peck
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Feb 8;14(2). pii: E164. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14020164.
INTRODUCTION With the changing landscape of tobacco products, the divide between cigarettes and cigars is obscured, so understanding adolescent reporting of cigar use is needed to improve best practices for surveillance, screening, and prevention/intervention. This study examined adolescents’ reported cigar use and correlates of use. METHODS Participants (N=186) were 13–17 years old tobacco users participating in a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors. Measurement...
Author(s): Michelle Rait (Lead); Judith Prochaska; Mark Rubinstein
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2016 Feb;53:206-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.035. Epub 2015 Jun 23.
The Associations between Yelp Online Reviews and Vape Shops Closing or Remaining Open One Year Later.
INTRODUCTION:Vape shops are popular brick-and-mortar stores that sell e-cigarette products but are not understood well. Previous analysis of Yelp reviews of vape shops located in various ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California in 2014 identified characteristics of vape shop as delineated by consumers. In this study, we assessed the associations between these characteristics and vape shops going out of business in 2015.METHODS:Content analysis of Yelp reviews of 72 vape shops in 2014...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Jennifer B. Unger; Steve Sussman; Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
PubMed: Tob Prev Cessat. 2017;2(Suppl). pii: 9. doi: 10.18332/tpc/67967. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
Decades of alcohol research have established the health risks and pharmacodynamic profile of oral alcohol consumption. Despite isolated periods of public health concern, comparatively less research has evaluated exposure to alcohol vapor. Inhaled alcohol initially bypasses first-pass metabolism and rapidly reaches the arterial circulation and the brain, suggesting that this route of administration may be associated with pharmacological effects that increase the risk of addiction. However...
Author(s): Robert MacLean (Lead); Gerald Valentine; Peter Jatlow; Mehmet Sofuoglu
PubMed: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Feb;41(2):238-250. doi: 10.1111/acer.13291. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).
Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We...
Author(s): Ce Shang (Lead); Jidong Huang; Frank Chaloupka; Kai-Wen Cheng; Yanyun He
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jan; 14(1): 98. Published online 2017 Jan 21. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14010098
INTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes have increased in popularity and given rise to a new type of sales outlet-the vape shop. Expanding on work examining vape shop employee e-cigarette and tobacco attitudes and behaviors1, this study examined key messages that vape shop employees communicate to customers. METHODS: Using informal interviews, observations, and a cross-sectional survey, we examined vape shop employees' (n=16) perceptions and e-cigarette use. Data were collected in nine vape shops...
Author(s): Joy Hart (Lead); Collin N. Smith; RJ Keith; Clara Sears; Alexander Lee; S Ridner; A Siu
PubMed: Tob Prev Cessat. 2016;2(Suppl). doi:10.18332/tpc/67800
The relationship between smoking intensity and subclinical cardiovascular injury: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modern tobacco regulatory science requires an understanding of which biomarkers of cardiovascular injury are most sensitive to cigarette smoking exposure. METHODS: We studied self-reported current smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Smoking intensity was defined by number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine levels. Subclinical cardiovascular injury was assessed using markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin...
Author(s): Rifai Al (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; John W. McEvoy; Michael E. Hall; Rose Robertson; Andrew DeFilipis; Emelia Benjamin; RJ Keith; MJ Blaha; MR Jones; HS Magid; Ana Navas-Acien; CJ Rodriguez; GR Barr
PubMed: Atherosclerosis. 2017 Mar;258:119-130.
Low nicotine content descriptors reduce perceived health risks and positive cigarette ratings in participants using very low nicotine content cigarettes.
Introduction Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe “light” cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects...
Author(s): Rachel Denlinger-Apte (Lead); Danielle Joel; Eric C. Donny; Andrew Strasser
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Dec 21. pii: ntw320. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw320. [Epub ahead of print]
Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word "WARNING"...
Author(s): Ce Shang (Lead); Frank Chaloupka
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jan 10;14(1). pii: E62. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14010062.
Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms.
Background: The FDA recently acquired regulatory authority over tobacco products, leading to renewed interest in whether reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes would reduce tobacco dependence in the United States. Given the association between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking, it is important to consider whether smokers with elevated depressive symptoms experience unique benefits or negative consequences of nicotine reduction. Methods: In this secondary analysis of...
Author(s): Jennifer W. Tidey (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Eric C. Donny; Lauren R. Pacek; Neal Benowitz; Natalie Nardone; Rachel Denlinger-Apte; Rachel N. Cassidy; Sarah Dermody; Mustafa al'Absi; Joseph Koopmeiners; David Drobes; Ryan Vandrey; Andrine Lemieux
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Jan;19(1):59-67. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
The first guidance on Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) dates back to 2005. This document expands this to include aspects of quality assurance for in vitro cell culture focusing on the increasingly diverse cell types and culture formats used in research, product development, testing and manufacture of biotechnology products and cell-based medicines. It provides a set of basic principles of best practice that can be used in training new personnel, reviewing and improving local procedures, and...
Author(s): David Pamies (Lead); Anna Bal-Price; Anton Simenov; Danilo Tagle; Dave Allen; David Gerhold; Dezhong Yin; Francesca Pistollato; Takashi Inutsuka; Kristie Sullivan; Glyn Stacey; Harry Salem; Marcel Leist; Mardas Daneshian; Mohan Vemuri; Richard Mcfarland; Sandra Coecke; Suzanne Fitzpatrick; Uma Lakshmipathy; Amanda Mack; Wen Bo Wang; Daiju Yamazaki; Yuko Sekino; Yasunari Kanda; Lena Smirnova; Thomas Hartung
PubMed: ALTEX. 2017;34(1):95-132. doi: 10.14573/altex.1607121. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by endothelial cells and can affect cardiovascular function. We examined if serum BDNF was associated with risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: We studied individuals without an AF diagnosis at baseline from the Framingham original and offspring cohorts. We used age- and sex-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the association of serum...
Author(s): Faisal Rahman (Lead); Xiaoyan Yin; Patrick Ellinor; Steven Lubitz; Ramachandran Vasan; David McManus; Emelia Benjamin; AS Beiser; JW Magnani; S Seshadri
PubMed: Am Heart J. 2017 Jan;183:69-73.
Objectives: Youth e-cigarette use may increase the risk of initiating conventional cigarettes, but the specific effects of flavored e-cigarettes—which greatly appeal to youth—are unknown. This study examined the association between flavored e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking susceptibility among youth non-smokers. Methods: Data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 18,392) were used to explore the relationship between current e-cigarette use status (nonuse, flavored, or plain...
Author(s): Julia C. Chen (Lead); Erin L. Mead; Babita Das; Dina Borzekowski
PubMed: Tobacco Regulatory Science, 3(1), 68-80
OBJECTIVES:Very few studies have evaluated perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among smokers with mental illness. This study assessed expectancies about the effects of smoking combustible cigarettes or using ENDS among current smokers with and without severe psychological distress (SPD).METHODS:We used a crowdsourcing system to survey 268 smokers on their expectancies for the effects of combustible cigarettes and ENDS. Positive expectancies assessed included negative...
Author(s): Carmel McNicholas (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2017 Jan;3(1):108-114. doi: 10.18001/TRS.3.1.11.
Characteristics of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2015
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths (1,2); in 2015, 5.3% of middle school students and 16.0% of high school students reported using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days (1). However, limited information exists on the e-cigarette product types and brands used and the substances used in these products by youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine...
Author(s): Tushar Singh (Lead); Alexander Persoskie; Sara Kennedy; Kristy Marynak; Paul Melstrom; Brian King
PubMed: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Dec 30;65(5051):1425-1429. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm655051a2.
Introduction Identifying youth at risk for future e-cigarette use is critical for informing prevention efforts. Prior research established measures of susceptibility to conventional cigarettes, and this study aimed to examine whether items adapted for e-cigarette susceptibility predicted subsequent e-cigarette use among never e-cigarette users. Methods Longitudinal school-wide survey data were collected from middle and high school students in Fall 2013 (wave 1) and Spring 2014 (wave 2). Among...
Author(s): Krysten Bold (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Grace Kong; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Dec 29. pii: ntw393. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw393. [Epub ahead of print]
This research described U.S. adults' beliefs about nicotine and low nicotine cigarettes (LNCs) using the nationally-representative Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015; N=3738). About three quarters of people either were unsure of the relationship between nicotine and cancer or incorrectly believed that nicotine causes cancer. People who were non-White, less educated, age 65+, and never established smokers were most likely to be unaware that nicotine is not a cause of...
Author(s): Erin O'Brien (Lead); Alexander Persoskie; Allison Hoffman; Anh Nguyen
PubMed: Prev Med. 2017 Mar;96:94-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.048. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified...
Author(s): Claire Spears (Lead); Dina Jones; Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jan; 14(1): 10. Published online 2016 Dec 23. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14010010
Rationale, Procedures, and Response Rates for the 2015 Administration of NCI's Health Information National Trends Survey: HINTS-FDA 2015.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to monitor population trends in cancer communication practices, information preferences, health risk behaviors, attitudes, and cancer knowledge. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized HINTS as a unique data resource for informing its health communication endeavors and partnered with NCI to field HINTS-FDA 2015. HINTS-FDA 2015 was a self-administered paper instrument sent by mail...
Author(s): Kelly Blake (Lead); Annette Kaufman; David Portnoy; Chung-Tung Jordan Lin; Serena Lo; Eric Backlund; David Cantor; Lloyd Hicks; Amy Lin; Andrew Caporaso; Terisa Davis; Richard Moser; Bradford Hesse
PubMed: J Health Commun. 2016 Dec;21(12):1269-1275. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
A new trend in nicotine addiction is arising in the United States and across the globe. With the invention of electronic cigarette devices, former and even never smokers are now able to get a nicotine fix without the irritating effects and social stigma of cigarette smoke. However, the health implications of e-cigarettes and the impact of e-cigarette emissions are still unclear.
Author(s): Stephanie Jarmul (Lead); Angela Aherrera; Ana Navas-Acien; Ana Rule
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2017 Feb;107(2):265-266.
Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and subclinical cardiovascular disease among ethnically diverse populations. This study assesses the impact of SHS on inflammation and atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery calcification, and peripheral arterial disease). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 5032 nonsmoking adults aged 45 to 84 years without prior cardiovascular disease participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of...
Author(s): MR Jones (Lead); John W. McEvoy; Rifai Al; Lora Burke; MJ Blaha; HS Magid; JD Kaufman; KD Hinckley Stukovsky; M Szklo; J Polak; WS Post; Ana Navas-Acien
PubMed: J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Dec 19;5(12). pii: e002965.
Reporting adverse health experiences resulting from tobacco product use is an important public health initiative. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has a Safety Reporting Portal (SRP) for reporting issues involving tobacco products, in addition to human or animal drug products, foods, and dietary supplements.1 Although most health-care professionals are familiar with reporting drug-related adverse events, they may be unaware that unexpected health or safety concerns arising from...
Author(s): Sandra Retzky (Lead)
PubMed: Chest. 2016 Dec;150(6):1169-1170. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.08.1452.
BackgroundCigarette smoking is an important risk factor for unhealthy dieting behaviors (UDBs) in youth. The role of alternative tobacco products and UDB engagement has yet to be examined empirically despite concerning trends in use. This study aimed to examine UDB prevalence in a U.S. geographic region-specific adolescent sample and associations with a variety of tobacco use behaviors and perceptions.MethodsWeighted data from the 2013 Virginia Youth Survey were analyzed (n = 6903). UDBs...
Author(s): Megan Sutter (Lead); Aashir Nasim; Caroline Cobb; Susan Veldheer
PubMed: J Eat Disord. 2016 Dec 15;4:39. doi: 10.1186/s40337-016-0126-y. eCollection 2016.
Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Perceptions and Behavior: Tobacco Control Gains and Gaps Amidst the Rapidly Expanding Tobacco Products Market From 2001 to 2015.
PURPOSE:The aim of the study was to determine whether adolescents' intentions to smoke, cigarette smoking behavior, and specific perceptions of cigarette smoking are different in 2015 versus 2001.METHODS:Data from two California school-based studies (Xage = 14) were compared: one conducted in 2001-2002 ("2001"), N = 395; the second in 2014-2015 ("2015"); N = 282.RESULTS:In 2015, more participants reported it was very unlikely they would smoke (94% vs. 65%) and that...
Author(s): Yasser Sanad (Lead)
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2017 Feb;60(2):226-228. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.09.025. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
Introduction The Tobacco Control Act requires public disclosure of information about toxic constituents in cigarette smoke. To inform these efforts, we studied public understanding of cigarette smoke constituents. Methods We conducted phone surveys with national probability samples of adolescents (n=1125) and adults (n=5014) and an internet survey with a convenience sample of adults (n=4137), all in the USA. We assessed understanding of cigarette smoke constituents in general and of 24 specific...
Author(s): Noel Brewer (Lead); Seth Noar; Jennifer Morgan; Sabeeh Baig; Marcella Boynton; Jessica Pepper; M. Justin Byron; Jennifer Mendel; Robert Agans; Kurt Ribisl
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Dec 6. pii: tobaccocontrol-2015-052897. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052897. [Epub ahead of print]
Transport phenomena governing nicotine emissions from electronic cigarettes: Model formulation and experimental investigation
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid-containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations...
Author(s): Soha Talih (Lead); Ahmad El-Hellani; Alan Shihadeh; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba; Mohamad Baassiri; Zainab Balhas; Rachel El-Hage; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Ezzat Jaroudi; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Aerosol Science and Technology. 2017;51(1):1-11. doi: 10.1080/02786826.2016.1257853
INTRODUCTION: Across the US, vape shops have emerged to provide e-cigarette users access to products not usually available at gas stations or retail stores. As vape shop sales have steadily increased, so have questions about the impact of marketing and price on e-cigarette use behaviors. In this exploratory analysis, we aim to characterize spending on e-cigarettes and evaluate the association with customer perceptions and use behaviors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey of vape shop...
Author(s): Clara Sears (Lead); RJ Keith; Clara Sears; Joy Hart; Kandi Walker; Alexander Lee; S Ridner
PubMed: Tob Prev Cessat. 2016;2(Suppl). pii: 9. doi: 10.18332/tpc/67435. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
Inequities in tobacco retailer sales to minors by neighbourhood racial/ethnic composition, poverty and segregation, USA, 2015.
Objective Tobacco retailers are an important source of tobacco products for minors. Previous research shows racial discrimination in sales to minors, but no national study has examined neighbourhood correlates of retailer under-age sales. Methods We accessed publicly available results of 2015 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspections of tobacco retailers (n=108 614). In this cross-sectional study, we used multilevel logistic regression to predict the likelihood of retailer sale...
Author(s): Joseph G. L. Lee (Lead); Kyle Gregory; Hope Landrine; Essie Torres
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Dec;25(e2):e142-e145. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053188. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
BACKGROUND:Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV).METHODS:Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide...
Author(s): Alexa Lopez (Lead); Alison Breland; Marzena Hiler; Thomas Eissenberg; Sarah Maloney
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Dec 1;169:33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.10.005. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
Impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use among youth, young adults and adults: a systematic review.
Objective This systematic review examines the impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on tobacco use perceptions and behaviours among youth, young adults and adults. Data sources English-language peer-reviewed publications indexed in 4 databases were searched through April 2016. Study selection A search strategy was developed related to tobacco products and flavours. Of 1688 articles identified, we excluded articles that were not English-language, were not peer-reviewed, were qualitative...
Author(s): Li-Ling Huang (Lead); Amanda Richardson; Hannah Baker; Clare Meernik; Leah Ranney; Adam Goldstein
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Nov 21. pii: tobaccocontrol-2016-053196. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053196. [Epub ahead of print]
Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.
Background The Food and Drug Administration can reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes to very low levels. This potential regulatory action is hypothesised to improve public health by reducing smoking, but may have unintended consequences related to weight gain. Methods Weight gain was evaluated from a double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial of 839 participants assigned to smoke 1 of 6 investigational cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from 0.4 to 15.8 mg/g or their...
Author(s): Laura E. Rupprecht (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Eric C. Donny; Jennifer W. Tidey; Lauren R. Pacek; Neal Benowitz; Rachel Denlinger-Apte; Sarah Dermody; Tracy T. Smith; Alan Sved; Mustafa al'Absi; Joseph Koopmeiners; Jason Oliver; David Drobes; Joseph McClernon; Ryan Vandrey
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Mar;26(e1):e43-e48. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053301. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration’s list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N′-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco...
Author(s): Selvin Edwards (Lead); Liqin Zhang; Yan Ding; Matthew Holman; Lana Rossiter; Kenneth Taylor; Clifford Watson
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 Feb 20;30(2):540-551. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00268. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...
Author(s): Melissa Harrell (Lead); MeLisa R. Creamer; Pratibha Nayak; Scott Weaver; Terry Pechacek; Michael Eriksen; Alexandra Loukas; Cheryl L. Perry; Carl Marti; Christian Jackson; John Heath
PubMed: Prev Med Rep. 2016 Nov 11;5:33-40. eCollection 2017 Mar.
Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers’ attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers’ attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers...
Author(s): Sarah Johnson (Lead); Blair Coleman; Carol Schmitt
PubMed: Psychol Addict Behav. 2016 Dec;30(8):887-894. doi: 10.1037/adb0000225. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
Since 2009, the United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) has had the authority to regulate the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products in order to reduce the death and disease caused by tobacco use. Biomarkers of exposure pertain to actual human exposure to chemicals arising from tobacco use and could play an important role across a number of FDA regulatory activities, including assessing new and modified risk tobacco...
Author(s): Cindy Chang (Lead); Selvin Edwards; Ling Yang; Aarthi Arab; Arseima Del Valle-Pinero
PubMed: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Mar;26(3):291-302. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0675. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
Objective: This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods: Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Results: Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine...
Author(s): Ban Majeed (Lead); Kymberle L. Sterling; Shanta Dube; Michael Eriksen; Cassandra Stanton
PubMed: Health Behav Policy Rev. 2016 Nov;3(6):590-596. doi: 10.14485/HBPR.3.6.8.
Serious mental illness (SMI) is associated with disproportionately high rates of cigarette smoking. The identification of factors that contribute to persistent smoking in people with SMI may lead to the development and adoption of tobacco control policies and treatment approaches that help these smokers quit. This commentary examines factors underlying smoking persistence in people with SMI from the perspective of behavioral economics, a discipline that applies economic principles to understanding...
Author(s): Jennifer W. Tidey (Lead)
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:31-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 May 16.
Effects of sweet flavorings and nicotine on the appeal and sensory properties of e-cigarettes among young adult vapers: Application of a novel methodology.
Product characteristics that impact e-cigarette appeal by altering the sensory experience of vaping need to be identified to formulate evidence-based regulatory policies. While products that contain sweet flavorings and produce a “throat hit” (i.e., desirable airway irritation putatively caused by nicotine) are anecdotally cited as desirable reasons for vaping among young adults, experimental evidence of their impact on user appeal is lacking. This experiment applied a novel laboratory...
Author(s): Nicholas I. Goldenson (Lead); Jessica Barrington-Trimis; Jonathan M. Samet; Mary Ann Pentz; Adam Leventhal; Matthew Kirkpatrick; Raina Pang; Julia McBeth
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Nov 1;168:176-180. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.09.014. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed risk perceptions and social norms about tobacco use across adolescent non-users of tobacco, single- product users, and dual/poly-product users. METHODS: Use behaviors specific to e-cigarettes, cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and smokeless tobacco were assessed among 6th, 8th and 10th grade students (sample [n] = 3907 from a population of [N] = 461,069 students). Multivariate regression was used to examine differences in these factors across use categories, adjusted...
Author(s): Maria Cooper (Lead); MeLisa R. Creamer; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry; Christina Ly; Brittani Crook
PubMed: Am J Health Behav. 2016 Nov;40(6):761-770.
Association between Florida's smoke-free policy and acute myocardial infarction by race: A time series analysis, 2000-2013.
INTRODUCTION:Racial disparities in acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) are increasing over time. Previous studies have shown that the implementation of smoke-free policies is associated with reduced AMI rates. The objective of this study was to determine the association between smoke-free policy and AMI hospitalization rates and smoking by race.METHODS:Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data from Florida from 2000-2013 were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis to determine...
Author(s): Erin L. Mead (Lead); Jidong Huang; Laurie Whitsel; Rose Robertson; Raul Cruz-Cano; Debra Bernat; Chris Sherwin
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:169-175. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.05.032. Epub 2016 May 31.
Some context for understanding the place of the GED in the relationship between educational attainment and smoking prevalence.
Individuals with a General Educational Development (GED) degree have the highest smoking prevalence of any education level, including high school dropouts without a GED. Yet little research has been reported providing a context for understanding the exception that the GED represents in the otherwise graded inverse relationship between educational attainment and smoking prevalence. We investigated whether the GED may be associated with a general riskier profile that includes but is not limited...
Author(s): Allison Kurti (Lead); Ryan Redner; Stephen Higgins; Elias Klemperer; Ivori Zvorsky; Jeff Priest
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:141-147. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.026. Epub 2016 Feb 21.
Relatively little has been reported characterizing cumulative risk associated with co-occurring risk factors for cigarette smoking. The purpose of the present study was to address that knowledge gap in a U.S. nationally representative sample. Methods Data were obtained from 114,426 adults (≥ 18 years) in the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (years 2011–13). Multiple logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of...
Author(s): Stephen Higgins (Lead); Allison Kurti; Diann E. Gaalema; Megan E. Roberts; Thomas J. White; Nathan J. Doogan; Cassandra Stanton; Diana Keith; Ryan Redner; Jeff Priest; Brian Sprague
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:110-117. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.025. Epub 2016 Feb 21.
E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.
INTRODUCTION:The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant.METHOD:Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US...
Author(s): Gary Kaplan (Lead)
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:126-134. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.07.029. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related...
Author(s): Jolanta Kurek (Lead)
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.09.029. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
INTRODUCTION:Previously, the author documented that, even though tobacco-related diseases accounted for 20% of US deaths, in 1995 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) expended only 1.1% of its budget on tobacco research. The current analysis is a replication test of this result and adds other outcomes and comparisons.METHODS:The author obtained NIH funding information for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use and for obesity for each year between 2007 and 2014 from Project Reporter and compared...
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):1299-302. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv137. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
A literature review on prevalence of gender differences and intersections with other vulnerabilities to tobacco use in the United States, 2004-2014
This report describes results from a systematic literature review examining gender differences in U.S. prevalence rates of current use of tobacco and nicotine delivery products and how they intersect with other vulnerabilities to tobacco use. We searched PubMed on gender differences in tobacco use across the years 2004-2014. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, in a peer-reviewed journal or federal government report, report prevalence rates for current use of a tobacco product in males...
Author(s): Stephen Higgins (Lead); Allison Kurti; Diann E. Gaalema; Jennifer W. Tidey; Jack Henningfield; Mollie E. Miller; Megan E. Roberts; Ryan Redner; Thomas J. White; Nathan J. Doogan; Cassandra Stanton; Gary Atwood
PubMed: Prev Med. 2015 Nov;80:89-100.
Trends in tobacco use among US adults with chronic health conditions: National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2005-2013.
INTRODUCTION:Chronic conditions are among the most common and costly of all health problems. Addressing tobacco use among adults with chronic conditions is a public health priority due to high prevalence as well as greater potential harm from continued use.METHODS:Data were drawn from 9years (2005-2013) of the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adult (≥18years) tobacco use included any past 30-day use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, or smokeless tobacco. Chronic conditions examined...
PubMed: Prev Med. 2016 Nov;92:160-168. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.04.008. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study
BACKGROUND:This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors.METHODS:The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for...
Author(s): Anh Ngo (Lead)
PubMed: J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 Nov;26(11):1222-1230. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2016.6317. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
Introduction Limited data exist on flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) use among US adults. Methods Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=75 233), a landline and cellular telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18, were assessed to estimate past 30-day NCTP use, flavoured NCTP use and flavour types using bivariate analyses. Results During 2013–2014, 14.4% of US adults were past 30-day NCTP users. Nationally, an estimated 10.2 million e-cigarette...
Author(s): Michele Bonhomme (Lead); Bridget Ambrose; Benjamin Apelberg; Cindy Tworek; Brian King; Enver Holder-Hayes; Shari Feirman
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Nov;25(Suppl 2):ii4-ii13. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053373. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
Significance The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
Author(s): Sarah Soussy (Lead); Ahmad El-Hellani; Alan Shihadeh; Rima Baalbaki; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Nov;25(Suppl 2):ii88-ii93. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053220. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
In a recent publication in Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Oncken et al.1 examined 323 pregnant female Caucasian cigarette smokers, including menthol and nonmenthol users, and genotyped three TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene polymorphisms (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939). These polymorphisms specify whether an individual is a taster (associated with the PAV haplotype) or a nontaster (associated with the AVI haplotype) for a variety of bitter compounds, including the well-known phenylthiocarbamide...
Author(s): Davide S. Risso (Lead); Dennis Drayna; Eduardo Sainz; Joanne Gutierrez; Thomas Kirchner; Raymond Niaura
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Oct 12. pii: ntw275. [Epub ahead of print]
Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. Methods A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454) from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes were...
Author(s): Yuyan Shi (Lead); Karen Messer; Kevin Conway; John Pierce; Wilson Compton; Martha White; Maya Vijayaraghavan; Anne Hartman
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2016 Oct 21;16(1):1105.doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3770-x
Impact of smoking reduced nicotine content cigarettes on sensitivity to cigarette price: further results from a multi-site clinical trial
Aims To assess the impact of a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes on estimated consumption of reduced nicotine cigarettes and usual brand cigarettes at a variety of hypothetical prices. Design Double-blind study with participants assigned randomly to receive cigarettes for 6 weeks that were either usual brand or an investigational cigarette with one of five nicotine contents. Setting Ten sites across the United States. Participants A total of 839 eligible...
Author(s): Tracy T. Smith (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Eric C. Donny; Jennifer W. Tidey; Rachel N. Cassidy; Xianghua Luo; Chap T. Le
PubMed: Addiction. 2017 Feb;112(2):349-359. doi: 10.1111/add.13636. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
Week Long Topography Study of Young Adults Using Electronic Cigarettes in Their Natural Environment.
Results of an observational, descriptive study quantifying topography characteristics of twenty first generation electronic nicotine delivery system users in their natural environment for a one week observation period are presented. The study quantifies inter-participant variation in puffing topography between users and the intra-participant variation for each user observed during one week of use in their natural environment. Puff topography characteristics presented for each user include...
Author(s): Rob McCowell (Lead); R.J Robinson; E.C Hensel; K.A Roundtree; A.G Difrancesco; J. M. Nonnemaker; Y.O Lee
PubMed: PLoS One. 2016; 11(10): e0164038. Published online 2016 Oct 13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164038
Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results...
Author(s): Davide S. Risso (Lead); Dennis Drayna; Stephen Wooding; Donata Luiselli; Julia Kozlitina; Eduardo Sainz; Joanne Gutierrez; Betelihem Getachew; Carla Berg
PubMed: PLoS One. 2016 Oct 6;11(10):e0164157. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164157. eCollection 2016.
The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees' perceptions of their customers' demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation.METHODS:We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda...
PubMed: Tob Prev Cessat. 2016;2(Suppl). pii: 6. doi: 10.18332/tpc/65229. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
Current and Former Smokers' Use of Electronic Cigarettes for Quitting Smoking: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents and Young Adults.
Background This exploratory study examines the prevalence and predictors of current and former smokers’ use of electronic (e-) cigarettes for smoking cessation among a sample of adolescent and young adult established smokers. Methods We conducted school-wide surveys in two middle (n = 1166) and four high schools (n = 3614) in fall 2013 and one public college (n = 625) in spring 2014. We analyzed data from 189 established smokers (reported smoking 100 cigarettes in their lifetime) who also...
Author(s): Deepa Camenga (Lead); Grace Kong; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Sep 23. pii: ntw248. [Epub ahead of print]
Advances in Behavioral Laboratory Methods that Inform Tobacco Regulatory Science: A TCORS Working Group Special Issue.
Objective The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA) created unprecented enabling conditions for establishing national regulatory policy that reduces the burden of public health and societal problems associated with tobacco product use. The Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), created by the FDA to implement the TCA, developed a first-of-its-kind FDA/National Institutes of Health (NIH) collaborative program to fund Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS). Methods...
Author(s): M. Jerry Wright (Lead); Gerald Valentine
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 October; 2(4):294-300
There are an estimated 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States, and yet limited data on microbial populations within these products exist. To better understand the potential microbiological risks associated with STP use, a study was conducted to provide a baseline microbiological profile of STPs. A total of 90 samples, representing 15 common STPs, were purchased in metropolitan areas in Little Rock, AR, and Washington, DC, in November 2012, March 2013, and...
Author(s): Jing Han (Lead); Yasser Sanad; Joanna Deck; John Sutherland; Zhong Li; Matthew Walters; Norma Duran; Matthew Holman; Steven Foley
PubMed: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Sep 30;82(20):6273-6283. Print 2016 Oct 15
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA...
Author(s): Roby Joehanes (Lead); Allan C. Just; Riccardo E. Marioni; Luke C. Pilling; Lindsay M. Reynolds; Pooja R. Mandaviya; Weihua Guan; Tao Xu
PubMed: Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2016 Oct;9(5):436-447.
OBJECTIVE:To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access.METHODS:Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session.RESULTS:Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively...
Author(s): M. Jerry Wright (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):363-376. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.8.
Reducing the negative health effects caused by tobacco products continues to be a public health priority. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gives the Food Drug Administration authority to pursue several new strategies, including regulating levels of nicotine and other ingredients in tobacco products. A nicotine reduction strategy proposed by Benowitz and Henningfield aims to reduce the nicotine content of tobacco products to an amount below a threshold that supports...
Author(s): Kevin P. Jensen (Lead); Elise E. DeVito; Mehmet Sofuoglu
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):452-463. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.14. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
OBJECTIVES:Menthol, a flavoring agent, is found in approximately 90% of cigarettes, but at much higher levels in menthol than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol is reportedly included in cigarettes for its cooling and soothing effects, but also additional actions that affect smokers' receipt and processing of nicotine. In this study we investigated the response to short-term abstinence and acute nicotine delivery in menthol-preferring and non-menthol-preferring smokers.METHODS:Nicotine dependent...
Author(s): Elise E. DeVito (Lead); Aryeh I. Herman; Gerald Valentine; Kevin P. Jensen; Mehmet Sofuoglu
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):317-328. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.4.
The Potential That Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Can be a Disruptive Technology: Results From a National Survey
Introduction This study evaluates the reasons for use and acceptance of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) among current and former cigarette smokers to assess if ENDS may become a satisfying alternative to cigarettes. Methods Data are from a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, surveyed June–November 2014. The survey contained questions on awareness, usage, and reasons for use of traditional and novel tobacco products. The analytic sample was current and former...
Author(s): Terry Pechacek (Lead); Pratibha Nayak; Scott Weaver; Kyle Gregory; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Oct;18(10):1989-97. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw102. Epub 2016 May 3.
OBJECTIVES:We examined intra-individual variability in puff topography and CO measures collected during laboratory waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking using a research-grade waterpipe (RWP).METHODS:WP smoking topography and exhaled CO measures were obtained from 10 established WP smokers in a single-blind, crossover design. Using a previously validated RWP, each participant smoked "Two Apples" WP tobacco ad libitum with a single quick-light charcoal to satiation in 3 laboratory sessions spaced...
Author(s): Hyoshin Kim (Lead); Marielle C. Brinkman; Sydney Gordon; Pamela Clark; Eva Sharma
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):301-308. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.2.
Measurement of smoking behavior: Comparison of self-reports, returned cigarette butts, and toxicant levels.
A basic tenet of empirical research on cigarette smoking behavior is the systematic assessment of patterns of use. However, the large majority of extant research relies on smokers' retrospective reports of their average number of cigarettes per day (CPD), a measure that may be variable in terms of reliability and validity. Using data from 3 previously published studies of non-treatment-seeking daily smokers (combined N = 89), this analysis examined the reliability of self-reported CPD, the...
Author(s): Melissa Blank (Lead); Alison Breland; Caroline Cobb; Paul Enlow; Christina Duncan; Aaron Metzger
PubMed: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016 Oct;24(5):348-355. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
OBJECTIVES:Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products.METHODS:This...
Author(s): Seth Noar (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):440-451. doi: 10.18001/TRS.2.4.13.
OBJECTIVES:We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost).METHODS:Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers...
Author(s): Maria Parker (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct;2(4):309-316. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
High-throughput and sensitive analysis of urinary heterocyclic aromatic amines using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and robotic sample preparation system
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAA) are listed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco smoke. However, quantifying HCAA exposure is challenging. In this study, we developed a sensitive, precise and accurate isotope dilution, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify urinary HCAAs in smokers and nonsmokers. The high throughput robotic sample preparation system could handle a throughput of over...
Author(s): Liqin Zhang (Lead); Lei Wang; Yang Xia; Baoyun Xia; Keegan Nicodemus; James Guggey; Ernest McGahee; Benjamin Blount
PubMed: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016 Nov;408(28):8149-8161. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
Large reductions in nicotine content could dramatically reduce reinforcement from and dependence on cigarettes. In this article, we summarise the potential benefits of reducing nicotine in combusted tobacco and address some of the common concerns. We focus specifically on New Zealand because it may be ideally situated to implement such a policy. The available data suggest that, in current smokers, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes decrease nicotine exposure, decrease cigarette dependence...
Author(s): Eric C. Donny (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Chris Bullen; Natalie Walker
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Mar;26(e1):e37-e42. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053186. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
E-cigarette use by adolescents has been related to onset of cigarette smoking but there is little knowledge about the process(es) through which this occurs. Accordingly, we tested the role of cognitive and social factors for mediating the relation between e-cigarette use and smoking onset. A school-based survey was conducted with a baseline sample of 2,338 students in Hawaii (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) who were surveyed in 2013 (Time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (Time...
Author(s): Thomas Wills (Lead); James Sargent; Frederick Gibbons; Rebecca Schweitzer
PubMed: Psychol Addict Behav. 2016 Dec;30(8):876-886. doi: 10.1037/adb0000213. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
Flavourings significantly affect inhalation toxicity of aerosol generated from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS).
Background E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. Methods Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested. A convenience...
Author(s): Noel J Leigh (Lead); Maciej L. Goniewicz; Ralph Lawton; Pamela Hershberger
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Nov;25(Suppl 2):ii81-ii87. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053205. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal research is needed to identify predictors of continued electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth. We expected that certain reasons for first trying e-cigarettes would predict continued use over time (eg, good flavors, friends use), whereas other reasons would not predict continued use (eg, curiosity). METHODS: Longitudinal surveys from middle and high school students from fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) were used to examine reasons for trying...
Author(s): Krysten Bold (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Grace Kong; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Pediatrics. 2016 Sep;138(3). pii: e20160895. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0895. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
Mid-career faculty development in academic medicine: How does it impact faculty and institutional vitality?
PURPOSE: Faculty vitality is integral to the advancement of higher education. Strengthening vitality is particularly important for mid-career faculty, who represent the largest and most dissatisfied segment. The demands of academic medicine appear to be another factor that may put faculty at risk of attrition. To address these issues, we initiated a ten-month mid-career faculty development program. METHODS: A mixed-methods quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the program's impact...
Author(s): MaryAnn Campion (Lead); Emelia Benjamin; Robina Bhasin; Donald Beaudette; Mary Shann
PubMed: J Fac Dev. 2016 Sep;30(3):49-64.
In this paper, we study the local polynomial composite quantile regression (CQR) smoothing method for the nonlinear and nonparametric models under the Harris recurrent Markov chain framework. The local polynomial CQR regression method is a robust alternative to the widely-used local polynomial method, and has been well studied in stationary time series. In this paper, we relax the stationarity restriction on the model, and allow that the regressors are generated by a general Harris recurrent...
PubMed: J Econom. 2016 Sep;194(1):44-56. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
Real-Time Measurement of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Size Distribution and Metals Content AnalysisReal-Time Measurement of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Size Distribution and Metals Content Analysis
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing worldwide and is highest among both daily and nondaily smokers. E-cigarettes are perceived as a healthier alternative to combustible tobacco products, but their health risk factors have not yet been established, and one of them is lack of data on aerosol size generated by e-cigarettes. METHODS: We applied a real-time, high-resolution aerosol differential mobility spectrometer to monitor the evolution of aerosol size and...
Author(s): Vladimir B. Mikheev (Lead); Marielle C. Brinkman; Sydney Gordon; Pamela Clark; Courtney Granville
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Sep;18(9):1895-902. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw128
Socially isolated individuals face elevated rates of illness and death. Conventional measures of social connectedness reflect an individual's perceived network and can be subject to bias and variation in reporting. In this study of a large human social network, we find that greater indegree, a sociocentric measure of friendship and familial ties identified by a subject's social connections rather than by the subject, predicts significantly lower concentrations of fibrinogen (a biomarker of...
Author(s): Kimber Richter (Lead)
PubMed: Proc Biol Sci. 2016 Aug 31;283(1837). pii: 20160958
Acrolein is a highly toxic, volatile, unsaturated aldehyde generated during incomplete combustion as in tobacco smoke and indoor fires. Because the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel mediates tobacco smoke-induced lung injury, we assessed its role in high-level acrolein-induced toxicity in mice. Acrolein (100-275ppm, 10-30min) caused upper airway epithelial sloughing, bradypnea and oral gasping, hypothermia, cardiac depression and mortality. Male wild-type mice (WT, C57BL/6;...
Author(s): Daniel Conklin (Lead); Michele YF Kong; P Haberzettl; G Jagatheesan; GW Hoyle
PubMed: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 1;324:61-72.
Background This paper describes the methods and conceptual framework for Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data collection. The National Institutes of Health, through the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is partnering with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products to conduct the PATH Study under a contract with Westat. Methods The PATH Study is a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of 45 971 adults and youth...
Author(s): Andrew Hyland (Lead); Annette Kaufman; Bridget Ambrose; Cindy Tworek; Cathy Backinger; Greta Tessman; Karen Messer; Ling Yang; Benjamin Blount; Kevin Conway; Nicolette Borek; Elizabeth Lambert; Charles Carusi; Kristie Taylor; Scott Crosse; Geoffrey Fong; Michael Cummings; David Abram; John Pierce; James Sargent; Maansi Bansal-Travers; Ray Niaura; Donna Vallone; David Hammond; Nahla Hilmi; Jonathan Kwan; Andrea Piesse; Graham Kalton; Sharon Lohr; Nick Pharris-Ciurej; Victoria Castleman; Victoria Green; Charlie Lawrence; Dana Bemmel; Heatherq Kimmel; Barbara O'Brien; Derek Alberding; Lynn Hull; Yu-Ching Cheng; David Maklan; Wilson Compton
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Aug 8. pii: tobaccocontrol-2016-052934. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-052934. [Epub ahead of print]
Determination of nicotine, glycerol, propylene glycol and water in electronic cigarette fluids using quantitative 1 H NMR.
The variability of the electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquid) composition has the potential to influence not only the amount of nicotine delivered to the user, but also the type and amount of generated byproducts and subsequent health risks. For this reason, it is important to characterize all of the chemical components of e-liquids. We report the development and application of a single 1H NMR analysis method to identify and quantify the most abundant chemical components (nicotine, glycerol...
Author(s): Michael Crenshaw (Lead); Marielle C. Brinkman; Sydney Gordon; Pamela Clark; Stephanie Buehler; Margaret Tefft
PubMed: Magn Reson Chem. 2016 Nov;54(11):901-904. doi: 10.1002/mrc.4498
"They're Pretty Much Made for Blunts": Product Features That Facilitate Marijuana Use Among Young Adult Cigarillo Users in the United States.
Introduction Cigarillo use is prevalent among young adults in the United States. Many young people use cigarillos as “blunts,” a term for a cigar emptied of its tobacco and replaced with marijuana. Because cigars in the United States are not subject to the same regulations as cigarettes, they offer a diverse selection of flavors and packaging styles. It is unclear how these and other product attributes facilitate blunt use. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted...
Author(s): Daniel P. Giovenco (Lead); Cristine D. Delnevo; Erin J. Miller Lo; Jane Lewis
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Jul 20. pii: ntw182. [Epub ahead of print]
Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in African American smokers: impact of CYP2A6 genetic variation and enzymatic activity.
Objective The rate of nicotine metabolism, determined primarily by CYP2A6 activity, influences tobacco dependence and smoking-induced disease risk. The prevalence of CYP2A6 gene variants differs by race, with greater numbers in African American (AA) compared to Caucasians. We studied nicotine disposition kinetics and metabolism by CYP2A6 genotype and enzymatic activity, as measured by nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), in AA smokers. Methods Subjects were administered IV infusions of deuterium-labeled...
Author(s): Neal Benowitz (Lead); Gideon St Helen; Delia Dempsey; Peyton Jacob, III; Rachel Tyndale
PubMed: Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016 Jul;26(7):340-50. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000222.
Motivated by an empirical analysis of the Childhood Asthma Management Project, CAMP, we introduce a new screening procedure for varying coefficient models with ultrahigh dimensional longitudinal predictor variables. The performance of the proposed procedure is investigated via Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical comparisons indicate that it outperforms existing ones substantially, resulting in significant improvements in explained variability and prediction error. Applying these methods to CAMP...
Author(s): Paolo Gasparini (Lead)
PubMed: Ann Appl Stat. 2016 Jun;10(2):596-617. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
Trajectories of Risk Factors and Risk of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in the Framingham Heart Study.
The associations of long-term patterns of risk factors and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) are incompletely characterized. Among 4351 Framingham Study participants (mean age 50±11 years at baseline examination, 57% women) from the original and offspring cohorts, we defined longitudinal patterns, referred to as trajectories, of AF risk factors and a composite AF risk score using ≈16 years of data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of trajectories...
Author(s): Faisal Rahman (Lead); Xiaoyan Yin; Martin Larson; Patrick Ellinor; Steven Lubitz; Ramachandran Vasan; David McManus; Jared Magnani; Emelia Benjamin
PubMed: Hypertension. 2016 Sep;68(3):597-605.
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601). We used weighted logistic...
Author(s): Maria Cooper (Lead); Adriana Pérez; Melissa Harrell; Joanne Delk
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Jul;2(3):278-289.
Objective This study examines little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) adult user characteristics, perceived addictiveness, use and importance of flavors, intentions to continue use, and reasons for use to inform prevention efforts and regulatory policy. Methods Data come from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, conducted online, June–November, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 141 current LCC users. Results Current...
Author(s): Amy L. Nyman (Lead); Kymberle L. Sterling; Scott Weaver; Ban Majeed; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Jul;2(3):239-251. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
In May 2016, the Food and Drug Administration extended its tobacco regulatory authorities to other products meeting the definition of a tobacco product (Deeming Rule). This authority now includes, but is not limited to, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes, as well as all cigars, pipes, and hookahs (waterpipes). The FDA's Center for Tobacco Products has been able to fund research projects addressing these newly deemed tobacco products through a variety...
Author(s): Cathy Backinger (Lead); David Ashley; Helen Meissner
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Jul 1;2(3):290-293
Exposure Calls to U. S. Poison Centers Involving Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes-September 2010-December 2014.
Introduction E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. Methods We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. Results Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401...
Author(s): Kevin Chatham-Stephens (Lead); Baoguang Wang; Benjamin Apelberg; Rebecca Bunnell; Paul Melstrom; Royal Law; Ethel Taylor; Stephanie Kieszak; Hannah Day; Lee Cantrell; Howell Foster; Joshua Schier
PubMed: J Med Toxicol. 2016 Dec;12(4):350-357. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
Copy Number Variation in TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptor Genes: Structure, Origin, and Population Genetics.
Bitter taste receptor genes ( TAS2R s) harbor extensive diversity, which is broadly distributed across human populations and strongly associated with taste response phenotypes. The majority of TAS2R variation is composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, 2 closely positioned loci at 12p13, TAS2R43 and - 45 , harbor high-frequency deletion (Δ) alleles in which genomic segments are absent, resulting in copy number variation (CNV). To resolve their chromosomal structure and organization...
Author(s): Natacha Roudnitzky (Lead); Davide S. Risso; Dennis Drayna; Maik Behrens; Wolfgang Meyerhof; Stephen Wooding
PubMed: Chem Senses. 2016 Oct;41(8):649-59. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjw067. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
Tobacco Use, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is associated with insulin resistance and incident diabetes. Given the racial/ethnic differences in smoking patterns and incident type 2 diabetes our objective was to evaluate the association between tobacco use and insulin resistance (IR) as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in a contemporary multiethnic cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 5,931 Multi- Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who at baseline were free of type 2 diabetes...
Author(s): RJ Keith (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; John W. McEvoy; Natasha DeJarnett; Rifai Al; Andrew DeFilipis; C Carruba; MJ Blaha
PubMed: PLoS One. 2016 Jun 20;11(6):e0157592. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157592. eCollection 2016.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the lifetime risk exceeding 60%.1 More than 2200 Americans die of CVD daily, 1 death every 40 seconds. A third of CVD deaths occur before 75 years of age, which is less than the average life expectancy of 78.8 years.1 Thus, prevention of CVD is a public health priority. Major advances in cardiovascular epidemiology over the last 4 decades have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of CVD, with...
Author(s): Ramachandran Vasan (Lead); Emelia Benjamin
PubMed: Circulation. 2016 Jun 21;133(25):2626-33.
Background Effective electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) prevention messages are needed to combat the rising popularity/uptake of e-cigarettes among youth. We examined preferences for e-cigarette prevention messages that either emphasized gains (e.g., You save money by not using e-cigarettes) or losses (e.g., You spend money by using e-cigarettes) among adolescents and young adults. Methods Using surveys in two middle schools, four high schools, and one college in CT (N = 5405)...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Meghan E. Morean; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2016 Nov;62:108-13. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.06.015. Epub 2016 Jun 11.
Even after decades of aggressive anti-smoking campaigns, after banning cigarettes from most public places, after social de-normalization of tobacco use, and after the accumulation of extensive evidence linking tobacco products to early mortality, smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, killing more than 480,000 American every year, accounting for nearly 5 million premature deaths worldwide, and costing more than $300 billion in health care costs and lost productivity...
Author(s): Aruni Bhatnagar (Lead)
PubMed: Circ Res. 2016 Jun 10;118(12):1872-5.
Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are established teratogens and carcinogens in animals and classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans by the IARC. High levels of VNAs have been detected in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. VNA exposure may lead to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (e.g. inflammation), chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes), and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease). To conduct epidemiological studies...
Author(s): James Hodgson (Lead); Tiffany Seyler; Langing Wang
PubMed: J Anal Toxicol. 2016 Jul;40(6):414-8. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkw038. Epub 2016 Jun 5.
With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles...
Author(s): Y Wu (Lead); Emelia Benjamin; S MacMahon
PubMed: Circulation. 2016 Jun 14;133(24):2545-60.
Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in smokers. Although new tobacco products such as e-cigarettes do not generate many of the harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), present in combustible tobacco products the cardiovascular effects of these devices are unknown and their efficacy in promoting and sustaining cessation remains unclear. Currently, these devices are being marketed as cleaner and safer alternative to smoking that could help smokers quit smoking. Nevertheless...
Author(s): Aruni Bhatnagar (Lead)
PubMed: Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep (2016) 10: 24-34.
Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes.
Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin...
Author(s): Joseph Allen (Lead); Joseph Allen; Skye Flanigan; Mallory LeBlanc ; Jose Vallarino; Piers MacNaughton; James Stewart; David Christiani
PubMed: Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Jun;124(6):733-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1510185. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
OBJECTIVES:Menthol, a flavoring agent, is found in approximately 90% of cigarettes, but at much higher levels in menthol than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol is reportedly included in cigarettes for its cooling and soothing effects, but also additional actions that affect smokers' receipt and processing of nicotine. In this study we investigated the response to short-term abstinence and acute nicotine delivery in menthol-preferring and non-menthol-preferring smokers.METHODS:Nicotine dependent...
Author(s): Kathryn Hefner (Lead); Mehmet Sofuoglu; Robert Rosenheck; Jeremy Merrel; Marcedes Coffman; Gerry Valentine
PubMed: J Dual Diagn. 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):109-17. doi: 10.1080/15504263.2016.1172895. Epub 2016 Apr 11.
Correlates of current menthol cigarette and flavored other tobacco product use among U.S. young adults
Background Flavored and menthol tobacco products are particularly appealing to young adults. However, little is known about factors associated with their use in this population. Purpose To examine characteristics associated with using menthol cigarettes, flavored other tobacco products (OTP), and flavored e-cigarettes among young adults. Methods Using a nationally representative online sample of young adults (n=4,239) from the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, mutually exclusive groups...
Author(s): Jessica Rath (Lead); Amanda Richardson; Andrea C. Villanti; Jennifer L Pearson; Donna Vallone; Valerie Williams
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2016 Nov;62:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.021. Epub 2016 May 31
An abundance of evidence suggests that the tobacco industry's response to increased regulation imposed on cigarettes has been the development of little cigars and filtered cigars which are tobacco products that are merely cigarettes in disguise. Emphasising these products' physical attributes, the tobacco industry has offered cigar products to its consumers as pseudo-cigarettes. For decades, tobacco manufacturers' response to increased cigarette regulation and taxation has been to exploit...
Author(s): Cristine D. Delnevo (Lead); Daniel P. Giovenco; Richard O'Connor; Erin J. Miller Lo; Mary Hrywna
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 May 24. pii: tobaccocontrol-2016-052935. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-052935. [Epub ahead of print]
Introduction: The action of nicotine to suppress body weight is often cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Despite the weight-suppressant effects of nicotine, smokers and nonsmokers report equal daily caloric intake. The weight-suppressive effects of nicotine in animal models of smoking are poorly understood. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration has authority to implement a policy markedly reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes; such a reduction...
Author(s): Laura E. Rupprecht (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Tracy T. Smith; Alan Sved
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Sep;18(9):1869-1876. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw113. Epub 2016 May 18.
Inhalation of high-level volatile aldehydes, as present in smoke from wildfires and in tobacco smoke, is associated with both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) protein forms a cation channel (irritant receptor) that mediates tobacco smoke-induced airway and lung injury, yet the role of TRPA1 in the cardiovascular toxicity of aldehyde exposure is unclear. Physiologically, airway-located...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead)
PubMed: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Jun;1374(1):59-67
The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38...
Author(s): Davide S. Risso (Lead); Dennis Drayna; Stephen Wooding; Massimo Mezzavilla; Luca Pagani; Antonietta Robino; Gabriella Morini; Sergio Tofanelli; Maura Carrai; Daniele Campa; Roberto Barale; Fabio Caradonna; Paolo Gasparini; Donata Luiselli
PubMed: Sci Rep. 2016 May 3;6:25506. doi: 10.1038/srep25506.
Introduction: Worldwide, commercially available waterpipes vary widely in design and durability, including differences in fabrication materials, degree of leak-tight fit, and flow path diameter. Little is known about how the components of the waterpipe may influence puffing behavior and user’s exposure to toxins. To systematically evaluate exposure, it is necessary to use a standardized research-grade waterpipe (RWP) when conducting clinical and laboratory-based trials. Methods: We...
Author(s): Marielle C. Brinkman (Lead); Hyoshin Kim; Sydney Gordon; Robyn R. Kroeger; Dawn Deojay; Pamela Clark; Iza Reyes; Caleb Chitwood; Timothy E. Lane
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 16;18(5):785-93
Associations of Proposed Relative-Risk Warning Labels for Snus With Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions Among Tobacco Users and Nonusers.
INTRODUCTION:The US Food and Drug Administration can require changes in warning statements for modified risk tobacco products. We report an independent analysis of a consumer perception survey sponsored by Swedish Match as part of a Modified Risk Tobacco Product application to change warning labels for Swedish snus products.METHODS:The survey exposed each of 4324 daily exclusive cigarette smokers, 1033 daily smokeless tobacco users, 1205 daily other tobacco users, 726 former users, and 5915...
Author(s): Eiman Aboaziza (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):809-16. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv168. Epub 2015 Aug 7.
Background Although waterpipe smoking is increasingly popular among youth and can lead to nicotine dependence (ND), no studies have documented how ND develops in waterpipe smokers. We examined the emerging symptoms of ND among adolescent waterpipe smokers in Lebanon.Methods Individual confidential interviews were used to evaluate ND in 160 waterpipe smokers and 24 cigarette smokers from a sample of 498 students enrolled in 8th and 9th grades in Lebanon.Results Among waterpipe...
Author(s): Raed Bahelah (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg; Joseph DiFranza; Fouad Fouad; Kenneth Ward; Wasim Maziak
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Dec;25(e2):e127-e134. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052809. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
Adolescents' Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products.
ObjectiveThis study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco.MethodsA total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions...
Author(s): Jimi Huh (Lead)
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2016 May;58(5):558-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.01.012.
BACKGROUND: New avenues of data collection such as eHealth and mobile technology have the potential to revolutionize the way large populations can be assessed and managed outside of standard research and clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: A digital connectedness survey was administered within the Framingham Heart Study from 2014 to 2015. The exposure was usage of the Internet, email, cell phones, and smartphones in relation to demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors;...
Author(s): Caroline S. Fox (Lead); Emelia Benjamin; Shih-Jen Hwang; Kenneth Nieto; Maureen Valentino; Karen Mutalik; Joseph Massaro; Joanne Murabito
PubMed: J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Apr 13;5(4):e003193
"May I Buy a Pack of Marlboros, Please?'' A Systematic Review of Evidence to Improve the Validity and Impact of Youth Undercover Buy Inspections.
Most smokers become addicted to tobacco products before they are legally able to purchase these products. We systematically reviewed the literature on protocols to assess underage purchase and their ecological validity. We conducted a systematic search in May 2015 in PubMed and PsycINFO. We independently screened records for inclusion. We conducted a narrative review and examined implications of two types of legal authority for protocols that govern underage buy enforcement in the United States:...
Author(s): Joseph G. L. Lee (Lead); Kyle Gregory; Hannah Baker; Leah Ranney; Adam Goldstein
PubMed: PLoS One. 2016; 11(4): e0153152. Published online 2016 Apr 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153152
Objectives This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Methods Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21–68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in...
Author(s): Megan E. Roberts (Lead); Ellen Peters; Elizabeth Klein; Amy Ferketich
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Apr;2(2):176-185. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
Insula Demonstrates a Non-Linear Response to Varying Demand for Cognitive Control and Weaker Resting Connectivity With the Executive Control Network in Smokers
Deficits in cognitive control processes are a primary characteristic of nicotine addiction. However, while network-based connectivity measures of dysfunction have frequently been observed, empirical evidence of task-based dysfunction in these processes has been inconsistent. Here, in a sample of smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=21) a previously validated parametric flanker task is employed to characterize addiction-related alterations in the responses to varying (ie, high, intermediate, and...
Author(s): John Fedota (Lead); Allison Matous; Betty Salmeron; Elliot Stein
PubMed: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Sep;41(10):2557-65. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.62. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
This paper is concerned with solving nonconvex learning problems with folded concave penalty. Despite that their global solutions entail desirable statistical properties, they lack optimization techniques that guarantee global optimality in a general setting. In this paper, we show that a class of nonconvex learning problems are equivalent to general quadratic programs. This equivalence facilitates us in developing mixed integer linear programming reformulations, which admit finite algorithms...
Author(s): Pratibha Nayak (Lead)
PubMed: Ann Stat. 2016 Apr;44(2):629-659.
Two-stage model for time varying effects of zero-inﬂated count longitudinal covariates with applications in health behaviour research
This study proposes a two-stage approach to characterize individual developmental trajectories of health risk behaviors and delineate their time-varying effects on short-term or long-term health outcomes. Our model can accommodate longitudinal covariates with zero-inflated counts and discrete outcomes. The longitudinal data of a well-known study of youth at high risk for substance abuse are presented as a motivating example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model in delineating...
Author(s): Noah R. Gubner (Lead)
PubMed: J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat. 2016 Apr;65(3):431-444. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
Methemoglobin Formation and Characterization of Hemoglobin Adducts of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines.
Arylamines (AAs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco or cooking of meat. They undergo cytochrome P450 mediated N-hydroxylation to form metabolites which bind to DNA and lead to mutations. The N-hydroxylated metabolites of many AAs also can undergo a co-oxidation reaction with oxy-hemolgobin (HbO2) to form methemoglobin (met-Hb) and the arylnitroso intermediates, which react with the β-Cys93 chain of Hb to form...
Author(s): Khyatiben V. Pathak (Lead); Ting-Lan Chiu; Elizabeth Amin; Robert Turesky
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol. 2016 Mar 21;29(3):255-69. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00418. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
The Lancet Editorial1 criticising Public Health England's review of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) focused on three supposed short-comings of our paper:2 a lack of hard evidence, no formal criteria used, and so relied on the opinions of participants, and potential bias arising from the selection of participants and the declared conflicts of interest of some authors.2 As authors of the original paper,2 we believe that these three criticisms have over-generalised...
Author(s): Jonathan T. Macy (Lead)
PubMed: Lancet. 2016 Mar 19;387(10024):1160-2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00253-6. PMID: 27025332
Background: Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. Methods: one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were...
Author(s): Ce Shang (Lead); Jidong Huang; Frank Chaloupka; Kai-Wen Cheng; Qing Li
PubMed: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Mar 9;13(3). pii: E306. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13030306.
OBJECTIVES:We examined effects of long-term medical marijuana legalization on cigarette co-use in a sample of adults.METHODS:We conducted secondary analysis using data from the 2014 US Tobacco Attitudes and Beliefs Survey, which consisted of cigarette smokers, aged ≥ 45 years (N = 506). Participants were categorized by their state residence, where medical marijuana was (1) illegal, (2) legalized < 10 years, and (3) legalized ≥ 10 years. The Web-based survey assessed participants' marijuana...
Author(s): Arseima Del Valle-Pinero (Lead)
PubMed: Am J Health Behav. 2016 Mar;40(2):205-14. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.40.2.5.
A transdisciplinary model to inform randomized clinical trial methods for electronic cigarette evaluation.
Background This study is a systematic evaluation of a novel tobacco product, electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) using a two-site, four-arm, 6-month, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a follow-up to 9 months. Virginia Commonwealth University is the primary site and Penn State University is the secondary site. This RCT design is important because it is informed by analytical work, clinical laboratory results, and qualitative/quantitative findings regarding the specific ECIG products...
Author(s): Alexa Lopez (Lead); Caroline Cobb; Jonathan Foulds; Jessica Yingst; Susan Veldheer; Thomas Eissenberg; Shari Hrabovsky; Miao-Shan Yen
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2016 Mar 3;16(1):217. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2792-8.
ObjectivesWe examined effects of long-term medical marijuana legalization on cigarette co-use in a sample of adults.MethodsWe conducted secondary analysis using data from the 2014 US Tobacco Attitudes and Beliefs Survey, which consisted of cigarette smokers, aged ≥ 45 years (N = 506). Participants were categorized by their state residence, where medical marijuana was (1) illegal, (2) legalized < 10 years, and (3) legalized ≥ 10 years. The Web-based survey assessed participants’ marijuana...
Author(s): Julie B. Wang (Lead); Janine K. Cataldo
PubMed: Am J Health Behav. 2016 Mar;40(2):205-14. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.40.2.5.
Semivarying models extend varying coefficient models by allowing some regression coefficients to be constant with respect to the underlying covariate(s). In this paper we develop a semivarying joint modelling framework for estimating the time-varying association between two intensively measured longitudinal response: a continuous one and a binary one. To overcome the major challenge of jointly modelling these responses, namely, the lack of...
Author(s): Motohiro Nishida (Lead)
PubMed: Can J Stat. 2016 Mar;44(1):44-57. Epub 2015 Nov 25.
There is limited research on adolescents’ use of e-cigarettes and other substances. Materials and Methods 2,241 Connecticut high school students completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys assessing e-cigarette and other substance use. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to: 1) classify students based on their past-month use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah, blunts, marijuana, and alcohol, and 2) determine if age, sex, or race predicted class membership. Results Past-month...
Author(s): Meghan E. Morean (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Grace Kong; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo; Patricia Simon
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Apr 1;161:292-7. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.02.018. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
Comparison of the Performance of Cartomizer Style Electronic Cigarettes from Major Tobacco and Independent Manufacturers.
Objective This study compared the performance of 12 brands of cartomizer style electronic cigarettes (EC) using different puffing protocols and measured the concentrations of nicotine in each product. Methods Air flow rate, pressure drop, and aerosol absorbance were measured using two different protocols, first 10 puffs and a modified smoke-out protocol. Results First 10 puff protocol: The air flow rate required to produce aerosol ranged between brands from 4–21 mL/s...
Author(s): Monique Williams (Lead); Amanda Villarreal; Barbara Davis; Prue Talbot
PubMed: PLoS One. 2016; 11(2): e0149251. Published online 2016 Feb 18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149251
Periodontal disease (PD) is a common chronic disease that can be expensive to treat, and when untreated, can inflict significant morbidity and tooth loss. Growing evidence also links PD to higher risks of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.Cigarette smoking has been estimated to cause 8 million cases of PD in the USA or more than half of the 15 million cases of PD.1However, these estimates are based on data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
Author(s): Emily Vogtmann (Lead); Barry Graubard; Erikka Loftfield; Anil Chaturvedi; Bruce Dye; Christian Abnet; Neal Freedman
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Mar;26(2):237-238. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052750. Epub 2016 Feb 15.
Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead); Elizabeth Klein; Genevieve Davison; Abigail Shoben; Keryn Pasch
PubMed: J Community Health. 2016 Oct;41(5):897-902. doi: 10.1007/s10900-016-0167-9
Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from combustible cigarettes causes numerous diseases. Policies have been developed to prevent SHS exposure from indoor cigarette use to reduce health risks to non-smokers. However, fewer policies have been implemented to deter electronic cigarette (ECIG) use indoors, and limited research has examined the impact of secondhand exposure to ECIG aerosol. Methods Indoor air quality was measured at a 2-day ECIG event held in a large room at a hotel. Fine...
Author(s): Eric K. Soule (Lead); Alyssa Rudy; Alyssa Rudy; Caroline Cobb; Marzena Hiler; Tory Spindle; Sarah Maloney
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Jan;26(1):109-112. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052772. Epub 2016 Feb 15.
Introduction Public perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) remain poorly understood because surveys are too costly to regularly implement and when implemented there are large delays between data collection and dissemination. Search query surveillance has bridged some of these gaps. Herein, ENDS’ popularity in the U.S. is reassessed using Google searches. Methods ENDS searches originating in the U.S. from January 2009 through January 2015 were disaggregated...
Author(s): John Ayers (Lead); Jon-Patrick Allem; Rebecca Williams; Benjamin Althouse; Eric Leas; Mark Dredze
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2016 Jun;50(6):e173-81. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.12.008. Epub 2016 Feb 11
Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation
Rationale Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown. Objective To assess pathways of lung injury and inflammation in smokers and non-smokers with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation using established biomarkers. Methods We measured plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury in smokers...
Author(s): Farzad Moazed (Lead); Ellen Burnham; William Vandivier; Cecilia O'Kane; Murali Shyasumdar; Umar Hamid; Jason Abbott; David Thickett; Michael Matthay; Daniel McAuley; Carolyn Calfee
PubMed: Thorax. 2016;71:1130-1136. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207886.
A New Automated Method and Sample Data Flow for Analysis of Urinary Volatile Nitrosamines in Human Urine
Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are a group of compounds classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans. Along with certain foods and contaminated drinking water, VNAs are detected at high levels in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. Our laboratory monitors six urinary VNAs—N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), and N-nitrosomorpholine...
Author(s): James Hodgson (Lead); Tiffany Seyler; Langing Wang; Ernest McGahee; Stephen Arnstein
PubMed: Am J Analyt Chem. 2016 Feb;7(2):165-178. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
The airway epithelium is a complex pseudostratified multicellular layer lining the tracheobronchial tree, functioning as the primary defense against inhaled environmental contaminants. The major cell types of the airway epithelium include basal, intermediate columnar, ciliated, and secretory. Basal cells (BCs) are the proliferating stem/progenitor population that differentiate into the other specialized cell types of the airway epithelium during normal turnover and repair. Given that cigarette...
Author(s): Ruba S. Deeb (Lead); Ronald G. Crystal; Yael Strulovici-Barel; Matthew Walters; Qiuying Chen; Steven Gross
PubMed: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Feb;54(2):231-40. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2015-0055OC
Quantitation of the Minor Tobacco Alkaloids Nornicotine, Anatabine, and Anabasine in Smokers' Urine by High Throughput Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid in tobacco accounting for 95% of the alkaloid content. There are also several minor tobacco alkaloids; among these are nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine. We developed and applied a 96 well plate-based capillary LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in urine. The method was validated with regard to accuracy and precision. Anabasine was quantifiable to low levels with a limit of quantitation (LOQ)...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Eric C. Donny; Sharon Murphy; Linda von Weymarn; Nicole Thomson
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol. 2016 Mar 21;29(3):390-7. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00521. Epub 2016 Feb 12.
INTRODUCTION: The consumption of cigar products has increased since 2000. The multiple product types within this category, combined with the varied language with which consumers refer to them, present challenges for accurately assessing the prevalence of cigar product use. Surveillance is also complicated by the fact that these products can be used to smoke marijuana, as "blunts"-cigars in which the tobacco is removed and replaced with marijuana. Few studies exist regarding the language...
Author(s): DM Dickinson (Lead); Blair Coleman; Cindy Tworek; Greta Tessman; Jennifer Alexander; SE Johnson
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):850-6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv285. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that smokers aged 55–80 should be screened annually with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). This study identified demographics, smoking history, health risk perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes factors of older smokers (≥55 years) related to LDCT agreement. Using binary logistic regression, a predictive model of factors to explain LDCT agreement was produced. This is a cross-sectional, national, online survey of 338 older smokers (≥55...
Author(s): Janine K. Cataldo (Lead)
PubMed: Cancer Med. 2016 Apr;5(4):753-9. doi: 10.1002/cam4.617. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential...
Author(s): Leon Kosmider (Lead); Maciej L. Goniewicz; Danielle Smith; Andrzej Sobczak; Adam Prokopowicz; Jolanta Kurek; Marzena Zaciera; Jakub Knysak
PubMed: Thorax. 2016 Apr;71(4):376-7. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207895. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.
Objective Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Methods Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette...
Author(s): Thomas Wills (Lead); Rebecca Williams; James Sargent; Frederick Gibbons; Rebecca Knight
PubMed: Tob Control. 2017 Jan;26(1):34-39. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052705. Epub 2016 Jan 25.
Chemical and toxicological characteristics of conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff tobacco products.
Use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) is associated with oral cavity cancer and other health risks. Comprehensive analysis for chemical composition and toxicity is needed to compare conventional and newer STPs with lower tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) yields. Seven conventional and 12 low-TSNA moist snuff products purchased in the U.S., Sweden, and South Africa were analyzed for 19 chemical constituents (International Agency for Research on Cancer classified carcinogens), pH, nicotine...
Author(s): Anna Song (Lead); Theodore Brasky; Mirjana Djordjevic; Catalin Marian; Sarah Reisinger
PubMed: Toxicol Lett. 2016 Mar 14;245:68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.01.012. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
Introduction: Despite the longstanding use and popularity of menthol as a flavorant in tobacco products, its sensory interactions with inhaled nicotine have never been measured independently of the other irritants in tobacco smoke. We therefore measured the perception of menthol in an E-cigarette with the primary goal of assessing its analgesic effect on the sensory irritation produced by inhaled nicotine. Methods: Adult cigarette smokers sampled aerosolized E-liquids containing...
Author(s): Kathryn Rosbrook (Lead); Barry Green
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 July;18(7):1588-95.
Introduction Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) continue to grow in popularity, however, limited research has examined reasons for ECIG use. Methods This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory research approach called concept mapping (CM) to characterize and describe adults’ reasons for using ECIGs. A total of 108 adults completed a multi-module online CM study that consisted of brainstorming statements about their reasons for ECIG use, sorting each statement into conceptually...
Author(s): Eric K. Soule (Lead); Aashir Nasim; Scott Rosas; Eric Soule
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2016 May;56:41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.01.008. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Background Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes. Methods PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design...
Author(s): Sara Kalkhoran (Lead); Stanton Glantz
PubMed: Lancet Respir Med. 2016 Feb;4(2):116-28. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00521-4. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation
Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among...
Author(s): Maria Cooper (Lead); Maria Cooper; Melissa Harrell; Cheryl L. Perry
PubMed: Prev Chronic Dis. 2016 Jan 14;13:E07. doi: 10.5888/pcd13.150502
Objectives Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. Methods We exposed rats to SHS from little...
Author(s): Jiangtao Liu (Lead); Stanton Glantz; Xiaoyin Wang; Shilpa Narayan; Suzaynn Schick; Matthew Springer
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Jan 1;2(1):56-63.
INTRODUCTION: There are limited reports on the association of psychosocial factors with unhealthy behaviors, which are key mediators in the psychosocial-cardiovascular disease pathway. The Jackson Heart Study was used to examine the associations of multiple psychosocial factors with behaviors among African Americans. METHODS: The Jackson Heart Study is a prospective, cohort study of cardiovascular disease among African Americans recruited from the Jackson, MS, metropolitan area between...
Author(s): Mario Sims (Lead); Brad Wyatt; KJ Lipford; N Patel; CD Ford; YI Min
PubMed: Am J Prev Med, 52, S48–S55.
Sex differences in the sensitivity to nicotine may influence vulnerability to tobacco dependence. The goal of this study was to investigate the dose–response function for the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous nicotine in male and female smokers. Tobacco-dependent subjects (12 male and 14 female) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received sample infusions of saline and nicotine (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg doses) in a randomized double-blind crossover...
Author(s): Kevin P. Jensen (Lead); Elise E. DeVito; Gerald Valentine; Mehmet Sofuoglu; Ralitza Gueorguieva
PubMed: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Jul;41(8):2034-40. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.373. Epub 2015 Dec 31
Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective andThoughtful Responses from Smokers: Resultsof a Randomized Clinical Trial
Objective Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility...
Author(s): Abigail Evans (Lead); Dan Romer; Lydia F. Emery; Ellen Peters; Andrew Strasser; Kaitlin Sheerin
PubMed: PLoS One. 2015 Dec 16;10(12):e0142879. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142879. eCollection 2015.
Introduction: Menthol is the only characterizing flavor in cigarettes that was not banned as part of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. This longitudinal study explores the role of menthol in smoking initiation and progression. Purpose (a) to examine young adult patterns of menthol cigarette use including switching between menthol and non-menthol and (b) to describe associations between these patterns of menthol use and cessation related intentions and behaviors...
Author(s): Jessica Rath (Lead); Amanda Richardson; Amanda Richardson; Andrea C. Villanti; Jennifer L Pearson; Donna Vallone; Valerie Williams
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jul;17(7):839-46. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu247. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due...
Author(s): Eric K. Soule (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg; Thokozeni Lipato
PubMed: Curr Pulmonol Rep. 2015 Dec 1;4(4):163-172. Epub 2015 Sep 4.
There is no doubt that use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is becoming more widespread among both adults and adolescents in the United States [1, 2]. Although e-cigs were only invented in 2003 and started being marketed in the USA in 2007, by 2014, more high school students had used an electronic cigarette in the past 30 days (13.4%) than had used any other individual tobacco product. The product with second highest use prevalence was hookah at 9.4%, with cigarettes dropping to...
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2015 Dec;57(6):569-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.09.004.
Little cigar mainstream smoke is less well-characterized than cigarette mainstream smoke in terms of chemical composition. This study compared four popular little cigar products against four popular cigarette products to determine compounds that are either unique to or more abundant in little cigars. These compounds are categorized as new or distinctive exposures, respectively. Total particulate matter samples collected from machine-generated mainstream smoke were extracted with methylene...
Author(s): Theodore P. Klupinski (Lead); Marielle C. Brinkman; Erich Strozier; David Friedenberg; Sydney Gordon
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol. 2016 Feb 15;29(2):162-8. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00371. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
Hiding the tobacco power wall reduces cigarette smoking risk in adolescents: using an experimental convenience store to assess tobacco regulatory options at retail point-of-sale
Objectives This experiment tested whether changing the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall in a life sized replica of a convenience store had any effect on adolescents’ susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. Methods The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab (RSL), a life sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail point-of-sale environments influences tobacco...
Author(s): William G. Shadel (Lead); Steven Martino; Claude Setondji; Deborah Scharf; Daniela Kusuke; Angela Sicker; Min Gong
PubMed: Tob Control. 2015 Nov 23. pii: tobaccocontrol-2015-052529. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052529. [Epub ahead of print]
Background Smokeless tobacco products (SLT) and their communication have been topics of discussion in harm reduction debates, but little is known about smokers’ perceptions of existing SLT risk messages. This study aimed to explore smokers’ perceptions of SLT and snus products and news stories with different risk messages about them. Methods We conducted interviews with 30 smokers assigned to read one of three constructed news stories about SLT and snus with different messages...
Author(s): Olivia A. Wackowski (Lead); Cristine D. Delnevo; Jane Lewis
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Nov;25(6):671-678. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052412. Epub 2015 Nov 17.
Most tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood.1 Recent declines in prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth have coincided with increased use of e-cigarettes and hookahs.2 Although flavors other than menthol are prohibited in cigarettes in the United States,3 flavored noncigarette tobacco products are widely available and may appeal to youth. We examined flavored tobacco use among a nationally representative sample of US youth.
Author(s): Bridget Ambrose (Lead); Andrew Hyland; Brian Rostron; Hannah Day
PubMed: JAMA. 2015 Nov 3;314(17):1871-3. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.13802. Epub 26 October 2015
Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking among young adults
Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained...
Author(s): Jonathan T. Macy (Lead); Laurie Chassin; Ellen Yeung
PubMed: Psychol Health. 2016 March;31(3):349-63. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1104309. Epub 2015 Nov 3.
Perceived discrimination is associated with health behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
BACKGROUND: Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviours among African-Americans (AA). METHODS: The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat and sleep were examined among 4925 participants aged 35-84 years after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: Men reported slightly...
Author(s): Mario Sims (Lead); Thomas Payne; Ana Diez-Roux; Samson Gebreab; A Brenner; P Dubbert; S Wyatt; M Bruce; D Hickson; H Taylor
PubMed: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016 Feb 70(2):187-194
A Proposed Collaboration Against Big Tobacco: Common Ground Between the Vaping and Public Health Community in the United States.
An unfortunate conflict is underway between the public health community and the vaping community over e-cigarettes’ harmfulness or lack thereof. This conflict is made worse by an information vacuum that is being filled by vocal members on both sides of the debate; a perceived lack of credibility of public health officials by those in the vaping community; the tobacco industry’s recent involvement in e-cigarettes; and the constant evolution of different styles and types of e-cigarettes...
Author(s): Theodore L. Wagener (Lead); Ellen Meier; Terry Pechacek; Alayna Tackett; James Matheny
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):730-6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv241. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products (1). Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years (2,3). There is growing concern that widely...
Author(s): Catherine Corey (Lead); Bridget Ambrose; Benjamin Apelberg; Brian King
PubMed: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Oct 2;64(38):1066-70. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6438a2.
The use of tobacco products during adolescence increases the risk for adverse health effects and lifelong nicotine addiction (1,2). In 2014, an estimated 4.6 million middle and high school students were current users of any tobacco product, of whom an estimated 2.2 million were current users of two or more types of tobacco products (3). Symptoms of nicotine dependence are increased for multiple tobacco product users compared with single-product users (4,5). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration...
Author(s): Linda J. Neff (Lead); Catherine Corey; René Arrazola; Brian King; Conrad Choiniere; Ralph Caraballo; Shanna Cox; Corrine Husten
PubMed: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Oct 2;64(38):1061-5. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6438a1.
High-dimensional data have frequently been collected in many scientific areas including genomewide association study, biomedical imaging, tomography, tumor classifications, and finance. Analysis of high-dimensional data poses many challenges for statisticians. Feature selection and variable selection are fundamental for high-dimensional data analysis. The sparsity principle, which assumes that only a small number of predictors contribute to the response, is frequently adopted and deemed useful...
PubMed: Sci China Math. 2015 Oct;58(10):2033-2054. Epub 2015 Aug 22.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash...
Author(s): Meghan E. Morean (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Grace Kong; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Pediatrics. 2015 Oct;136(4):611-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1727. Epub 2015 Sep 7.
BACKGROUND:Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes...
Author(s): Wasim Maziak (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg; Kenneth Ward; Mohammad Jawad; Sena Jawad; Taghrid Asfar
PubMed: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 31;(7):CD005549. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005549.pub3.
Ten-year weight gain in smokers who quit, smokers who continued smoking and never smokers in the United States, NHANES 2003-2012.
Weight gain after quitting smoking is a common concern for smokers and can discourage quit attempts. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the long-term weight gain, smoking cessation attributable (SCA) weight gain and describe their relationship to cigarette consumption and body mass index (BMI) 10 years ago in a contemporary, nationally representative sample of smokers who continued to smoke and those who quit.SUBJECTS/METHODS:In all, 12,204 adults ⩾36 years old were selected from...
Author(s): Amanda Villarreal (Lead)
PubMed: Int J Obes (Lond). 2015 Dec;39(12):1727-32. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.127. Epub 2015 Jul 9.
The Most Natural Tobacco Used: A Qualitative Investigation of Young Adult Smokers' Risk Perceptions of Flavored Little Cigars and Cigarillos
Introduction: Flavored little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking prevalence rate is increasing among young adults; little is known about their comprehension of its risks. To inform tobacco control regulatory policy and prevention methods, we explored young adult smokers’ risk perceptions of flavored LCC products and its use. Methods: Purposive samples ( n = 90) of African American, Hispanic, and white young adults who self-identified as dual (smoked ≥ 1 LCC and cigarette in past...
Author(s): Kymberle L. Sterling (Lead); Craig Fryer; Pebbles Fagan
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):827-33. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv151. Epub 2015 Jul 14.
Tobacco smoking is a global health hazard that kills about 5 million people annually. Waterpipe smoking is among the most popular methods of tobacco consumption world-wide. In this study, we investigated whether waterpipe smoking impairs learning and memory in the hippocampus, a question of special concern due to the particular popularity of waterpipe use among youth. Additionally, possible molecular targets for expected learning and memory impairment were determined. In this study, rats were...
Author(s): Karem Alzoubi (Lead); Omar F. Khabour; Alan Shihadeh; Thomas Eissenberg; Eman Alharahshah; Farah Alhashimi
PubMed: J Mol Neurosci. 2015 Oct;57(2):249-56. doi: 10.1007/s12031-015-0613-7. Epub 2015 Jul 11.
As with other tobacco aerosols, nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes (ECIG) depends on the total nicotine and its partitioning between free-base (Nic) and protonated (NicH+) forms. Previous studies of ECIG nicotine emissions have generally reported “nicotine yield” without attention to whether the methods employed resulted in quantification of the total nicotine or only one of its forms, making reported results difficult to compare across studies or to evaluate against reported blood exposure...
Author(s): Ahmad El-Hellani (Lead); Alan Shihadeh; Rima Baalbaki; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba; Soha Talih; Rachel El-Hage
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Aug 17;28(8):1532-7. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00107. Epub 2015 Jul 22.
Objectives: We examined if: (1) exposure to marketing of e-cigarettes, harm perceptions, and beliefs about government evaluation of e-cigarettes were associated with e-cigarette use among college students; and (2) whether the aforementioned factors differed by current cigarette smoking status. Methods: Overall, 5028 students 18-24 years old completed an online survey in spring 2012. Results: Current cigarette smokers were more likely than non-smokers to use e-cigarettes, to report lower e-cigarette...
Author(s): Deepti Agarwal (Lead); Alexandra Loukas
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2015 July; 2:166-174
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health...
Author(s): Jessica Barrington-Trimis (Lead); Jennifer B. Unger; Mary Ann Pentz; Robert Urman; Tamika D. Gilreath; Kiros Berhane; Tess Boley Cruz; Jimi Huh; Adam Leventhal; Kejia Wang; Steve Howland; Chih-Ping Chou; Rob McCowell
PubMed: Pediatrics. 2015 Aug;136(2):308-17. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-0639.
In 2006, the U.S. District Court held that tobacco companies had “falsely and fraudulently” denied: tobacco causes lung cancer; environmental smoke endangers children’s respiratory systems; nicotine is highly addictive; low tar cigarettes were less harmful when they were not; they marketed to children; they manipulated nicotine delivery to enhance addiction; and they concealed and destroyed evidence to prevent accurate public knowledge. The courts required the tobacco companies to repair...
Author(s): Joseph Capella (Lead); Emily Brennan; Erin K. Maloney; Yotam Ophir
PubMed: Tob Regul Sci. 2015 Jul;1(2):186-197. Epub 2015 Jul 1.
This clinical case conference discusses three cases of patients using electronic cigarettes (ECIGs). ECIGs, also referred to as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) or ‘e-cigarettes’, generally consist of a power source (usually a battery) and heating element (commonly referred to as an atomizer) that vaporizes a solution (e-liquid). The user inhales the resulting vapor. E-liquids contain humectants such as propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorings and usually, but...
Author(s): Michael Weaver (Lead); Alison Breland; Tory Spindle; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: J Addict Med. 2014 Jul-Aug;8(4):234-40. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000043
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use prevalence has been commonly estimated on a product by product basis and the extent of polytobacco use among current users of each tobacco product is not well understood. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of polytobacco use among current users of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and snuff in US adults aged ≥18. METHODS: We used pooled data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 Cancer Control Supplements of the National...
Author(s): Hai-Yen Sung (Lead); Tingting Yao; Yingning Wang; James Lightwood; Wendy Max
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):817-26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv147. Epub 2015 Jun 30.
Bans on flavoured cigarettes have been enacted in the USA,1 the EU2 and elsewhere. However, little is known about industry and consumer counter reactions. Djarum, which controls 97% of flavoured cigarette sales in the USA, immediately released ‘cigars’ resembling their banned counterparts and continued to manufacturer flavoured cigarettes.3 This study describes: (A) online consumer interest4 in, and (B) promotion and availability of Djarum cigarettes, and their cigar replacements, before...
Author(s): Jon-Patrick Allem (Lead); John Ayers; Rebecca Williams; Benjamin Althouse
PubMed: Tob Control. 2016 Jul;25(4):489-90. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052309. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
n the 20th century, public health was responsible for most of the 30-year increase in average life expectancy in the United States.1 Most of the significant advances in public health (e.g., vaccinations, water fluoridation) required the combined effort of scientists and attorneys. Scientists identified public health threats and the means of controlling them, but attorneys and policymakers helped convert those scientific discoveries into laws that could change the behavior of industries or...
Author(s): Micah Berman (Lead); Annice Kim
PubMed: Berman, M. L. and Kim, A. E. (2015), Bridging the Gap between Science and Law: The Example of Tobacco Regulatory Science. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43: 95–98. doi:10.1111/jlme.12227
BACKGROUND: While nicotine is the primary addictive compound in tobacco, other tobacco constituents including minor alkaloids (e.g., nornicotine, anabasine) may also contribute to tobacco addiction by mimicking or enhancing the effects of nicotine. Further evaluating the behavioral effects of minor alkaloids is essential for understanding their impact on tobacco addiction and informing development of tobacco product standards by the FDA. METHODS: This study compared the addiction-related effects...
Author(s): Andrew Harris (Lead); Andrew Harris; Mark LeSage; Laura Tally; Peter Muelken; Andrew Banal ; Clare Schmidt; Quing Cao
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 1;153:330-4. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.005. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
Introduction: In the United States, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are currently unregulated, extensively marketed, and experiencing a rapid increase in use. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of U.S. adults about e-cigarette use in smoke-free public areas. Methods: Data were obtained from the online HealthStyle survey administered to a probability sample of a nationally representative online panel. The study included 4,043U.S. adults, aged 18 years or older...
Author(s): Ban Majeed (Lead); Kymberle L. Sterling; Shanta Dube; Carrie Whitney; Michael Eriksen
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jun;17(6):675-81. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu235. Epub 2014 Oct 30.
Muscarinic, but not nicotinic, acetylcholine receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area attenuates cue-induced sucrose-seeking.
The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is known to play a role in cue-mediated reward-seeking for natural rewards and drugs of abuse. Specifically, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate cue-induced drug-seeking. However, the potential role of these VTA receptors in regulating cue-induced reward seeking for natural rewards is unknown. Here, we examined whether blockade of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate...
Author(s): Nii Addy (Lead); Robert J. Wickham; Eric J. Nunes
PubMed: Behav Brain Res. 2015 Sep 15;291:372-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.05.036. Epub 2015 May 28.
Measurement of multiple nicotine dependence domains among cigarette, non-cigarette and poly-tobacco users: Insights from item response theory
Background Nicotine dependence (ND) is a key construct that organizes physiological and behavioral symptoms associated with persistent nicotine intake. Measurement of ND has focused primarily on cigarette smokers. Thus, validation of brief instruments that apply to a broad spectrum of tobacco product users is needed. Methods We examined multiple domains of ND in a longitudinal national study of the United States population, the United States National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol...
Author(s): David R. Strong (Lead); Andrew Harris; Allison Hoffman; Karen Messer; Kevin Conway; John Pierce; Nick Pharris-Ciurej; Victoria Green; Wilson Compton; Martha White; Sheri Hartman
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jul 1;152:185-93. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.040. Epub 2015 Apr 27.
Background Cigars are a growing public health concern, given the changes in cigar use patterns in the US and elsewhere since the 1960s. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on current cigar smoking and all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks to inform potential regulatory approaches and future research that would strengthen the body of evidence. Methods Using 3 different databases and handsearching, we identified epidemiological studies published prior to June 2014 that...
Author(s): Cindy Chang (Lead); Brian Rostron; Benjamin Apelberg; Catherine Corey
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2015 Apr 24;15:390. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1617-5.
Smoking Topography Characteristics of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes, With and Without Nicotine Replacement, in Smokers With Schizophrenia and Controls.
Introduction: Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level has been proposed as a regulatory strategy for reducing tobacco dependence. However, smokers with schizophrenia (SS) may be prone to changing their smoking topography in efforts to compensate for the reduction in nicotine content. The aims of this study were to compare smoking topography characteristics of usual-brand and very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes in SS and control smokers without...
Author(s): Jennifer W. Tidey (Lead); Mollie E. Miller; Rachel N. Cassidy
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Sep;18(9):1807-12. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw089. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
A systematic review of transitions between cigarette and smokeless tobacco product use in the United States.
Background Smokeless tobacco use is becoming an increasingly important public health issue in the US and may influence cigarette smoking behavior. Systematic information on transitions between smokeless tobacco and cigarette use in the US is limited. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published literature on transitions between smokeless tobacco and cigarette use in the US. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and EbscoHost databases for all published articles from January 2000 to March...
Author(s): Jamie Tam (Lead); Benjamin Apelberg; Hannah Day
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2015 Mar 18;15:258. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1594-8.
This paper conducted one of the first comprehensive international Internet analyses of seasonal patterns in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer. Search query data for the terms “tobacco” and “lung cancer” from January 2004 to January 2014 was collected from Google Trends. The relevant countries included the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and China. Two statistical approaches including periodogram and cross-correlation were applied to analyze seasonal patterns in...
Author(s): Zhu Zhang (Lead); Xiaolong Zheng; Daniel Zeng; Scott Leischow
PubMed: PLoS One. 2015 Mar 17;10(3):e0117938. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117938. eCollection 2015.
A novel fluorescent sensor protein for detecting changes in airway surface liquid glucose concentration
Both lung disease and elevation of blood glucose are associated with increased glucose concentration (from 0.4 to ~4.0 mM) in the airway surface liquid (ASL). This perturbation of ASL glucose makes the airway more susceptible to infection by respiratory pathogens. ASL is minute (~1 μl/cm2) and the measurement of glucose concentration in the small volume ASL is extremely difficult. Therefore, we sought to develop a fluorescent biosensor with sufficient sensitivity to determine glucose concentrations...
Author(s): Nordine Helassa (Lead); James Garnett; Matthew Farrant; Faaizah Khan; John Pickup; Klaus Hahn; Christopher MacNevin; Robert Tarran; Deborah Baines
PubMed: Biochem J. 2014 Dec 1;464(2):213-20. doi: 10.1042/BJ20141041
Financial incentives for smoking cessation among depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women: effects on smoking abstinence and depression ratings.
Introduction: We examined whether pregnant and newly postpartum smokers at risk for postpartum depression respond to an incentive-based smoking-cessation treatment and how the intervention impacts depression ratings. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis. Participants (N = 289; data collected 2001–2013) were smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in 4 controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Women were...
Author(s): Alexa Lopez (Lead); Stephen Higgins; Joan Skelly
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Apr;17(4):455-62. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu193.
Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels
In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified...
Author(s): Andrea C. Villanti (Lead); Jennifer Cantrell; Jennifer L Pearson; Jessica Rath; Donna Vallone
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2015 Mar;42:119-25. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Nov 21
Guidance to Employers on Integrating E-Cigarettes/Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Into Tobacco Worksite Policy.
In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public...
Author(s): Laurie Whitsel (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Neal Benowitz; Chris Bullen; Fred Goldstein; Lena Matthias-Gray; Jessica Grossmeier; John Harris; Fikry Isaac; Ron Loeppke; Marc Manley; Karen Moseley; Ted Niemiec; Vince O'Brien; LaVaughn Palma-Davis; Nico Pronk; Jim Pshock; Gregg Stave; Paul Terry
PubMed: J Occup Environ Med 2015 March;57(3)334-43.
Introduction: Smoking can be conceptualized as an operant behavior maintained by the reinforcing effects of cigarettes. Changing the magnitude and availability of alternative reinforcers should shift behavior away from smoking. Adults’ smoking behavior is sensitive to the magnitude and availability of alternative reinforcers; however, the extent to which the same is true for adolescents has not yet been shown in the laboratory. Methods: To test the sensitivity of adolescent smoking...
Author(s): Rachel N. Cassidy (Lead); Jennifer W. Tidey; Suzanne Colby; Christopher Kahler; Tyler Wray
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Dec;17(12):1449-55. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntv033. Epub 2015 Feb 8.
We thank Drs. Farsalinos, Voudris, and Le Houezec for their recent correspondence1 regarding our proposal that electronic cigarette (ECIG) regulation can be aided by attention to nicotine flux, defined as the nicotine emitted per puff second by a given design under given use conditions.2 In this reply, we note that we agree with several of the issues raised in their letter, find that existing data do not support others, and describe how, based on their correspondence1 and our published work,2...
Author(s): Thomas Eissenberg (Lead); Alan Shihadeh
PubMed: Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17, 165-167
Comparison of true and smoothed puff profile replication on smoking behavior and mainstream smoke emissions.
To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces...
Author(s): Marielle C. Brinkman (Lead); Hyoshin Kim; Sydney Gordon; Jane C. Chuang; Robyn R. Kroeger; Dawn Deojay; Pamela Clark
PubMed: Chem Res Toxicol 2015
Brain dopamine (DA) plays a central role in addictive disorders including nicotine addiction. Several DA-related gene variants have been studied to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy response for smoking cessation. Genetic variants in DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, DAT1, COMT and DBH genes show some promise in predicting response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. However, most of the clinical trials studying these variants had small sample sizes, used retrospective analysis, and enrolled smokers...
Author(s): Aryeh I. Herman (Lead); Elise E. DeVito; Kevin P. Jensen; Mehmet Sofuoglu
PubMed: Pharmacogenomics. 2014 Feb;15(2):221-34. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.246.
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) comprise an aerosolized nicotine delivery product category that provides consumers with probably unprecedented control over extensive features and operating conditions, allowing a wide range of nicotine yields to be obtained. Depending on the combination of such ECIG variables as electrical power input, geometry, liquid composition, and puff behavior, ECIG users can extract in a few puffs far more or far less nicotine than with a conventional combustible cigarette...
Author(s): Alan Shihadeh (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):158-62. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu175. Epub 2014 Sep 1.
Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire...
Author(s): Peter S. Hendricks (Lead); Kathleen F. Harrington; Connie Kohler; William Bailey; Mallory Cases; Christopher Thorne; JeeWon Cheong
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2015 Feb;41:106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.09.031. Epub 2014 Sep 28
Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking U.S. middle and high school electronic cigarette users, National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2001-2013
Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a...
Author(s): Rebecca Bunnell (Lead); Blair Coleman; Benjamin Apelberg; Catherine Corey; Israel Agaku; René Arrazola; Shanta Dube; Brian King; Ralph Caraballo
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):228-35. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu166. Epub 2014 Aug 20.
Background: The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. Objective: The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. Methods: The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their...
Author(s): Yunji Liang (Lead); Xiaolong Zheng; Daniel Zeng; Scott Leischow; Xingshe Zhou; Wingyan Chung
PubMed: J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 21;17(1):e24. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3665
Clearing the air. Smoking and incident asthma in adults. [Commentary on: "Active and Passive Smoking and the Incidence of Asthma in the Black Women’s Health Study"]
Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with numerous mechanisms thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, including increased Th2 pathway activation and allergic sensitization (1–4), as well as airway hyperreactivity (5, 6). Many studies have identified an association between cigarette smoke and asthma exacerbations in adults (7, 8); however, whether cigarette smoke is linked to the development of new adult-onset asthma is less clear. Several cross-sectional...
Author(s): Farzad Moazed (Lead); Carolyn S. Calfee; Carolyn Calfee
PubMed: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan 15;191(2):123-4. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201411-2098ED
Sense of Coherence and Tobacco Use Myths among Adolescents as Predictors of At-Risk Youth Cigarette Use
We examined the association between a general construct of wellness beliefs, sense of coherence, and a specific measure of tobacco-related beliefs, tobacco use myths, as predictors of two smoking -related outcome measures - next year smoking expectation and last 30-day smoking. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 710 adolescents attending California continuation high schools at baseline and at one-year follow-up between 2006 and 2008. Cross-sectionally, predictor and outcome measures...
Author(s): Omar El-Shahawy (Lead); Steve Sussman; Jennifer Tsai; Louise Rohrbach
PubMed: Subst Use Misuse. 2015 Jan;50(1):8-14. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2014.957767. Epub 2014 Sep 29.
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), vape pens, e-hookah, e-cigars, e-pipes, or other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has increased rapidly since their introduction in the United States in 2007, growing to a $2 billion market.1 There is controversy concerning the utility of ENDS as a harm reduction strategy, reflecting major gaps in the emerging evidence on potential benefits and harms of the products.2-4 Although exclusive use of ENDS is generally considered to be less...
Author(s): Jessica Barrington-Trimis (Lead); Jonathan M. Samet; Rob McCowell; Rob McConnell
PubMed: JAMA. 2014 Dec 17;312(23):2493-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.14830
Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts...
Author(s): Eiman Aboaziza (Lead); Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Tob Control. 2015 Mar;24 Suppl 1:i44-i53. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051910. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
Objectives: The susceptibility to smoking index can be improved as it only identifies one third of future adult smokers. Adding curiosity to this index may increase the identification of future smokers and improve the identification of effective prevention messages. Methods: Analyses used data from the California Longitudinal Study of Smoking Transitions in Youth, for whom tobacco use behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs were assessed at 3 time points from age 12 through early adulthood. Logistic...
Author(s): David R. Strong (Lead); David Portnoy; Karen Messer; John Pierce; Martha White; Conartd Choiniere; Sheri Hartman; Jesse Nodora; Lisa James; Genevieve Vullo
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jul;17(7):862-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu254. Epub 2014 Dec 6.
Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults
Introduction: Understanding why young people try and stop electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is critical to inform e-cigarette regulatory efforts. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (N = 127) in 1 middle school (MS), 2 high schools (HSs), and 2 colleges in Connecticut to assess themes related to e-cigarette experimentation and discontinuation. We then conducted surveys to evaluate these identified themes in 2 MSs, 4 HSs, and 1 college (N = 1,175) to explore whether reasons...
Author(s): Grace Kong (Lead); Deepa Camenga; Meghan E. Morean; Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin; Dana Cavallo
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jul;17(7):847-54. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu257. Epub 2014 Dec 6.
Parent, peer, and executive function relationships to early adolescent e-cigarette use: a substance use pathway?
Introduction Little is known about influences on e-cigarette use among early adolescents. This study examined influences that have been previously found to be associated with gateway drug use in adolescents: demographic (age, gender, ethnicity, free lunch), social contextual influences of parents and peers, and executive function deficits (EF). Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 410 7th grade students from two diverse school districts in Southern California (M...
Author(s): Mary Ann Pentz (Lead); Jennifer B. Unger; Chih-Ping Chou; HeeSung Shin; Nathaniel Riggs; Kathrine Collison
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2015 Mar;42:73-8. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.040. Epub 2014 Nov 1
Author(s): Lauren Dutra (Lead); Stanton Glantz
PubMed: J Adolesc Health. 2014 Nov;55(5):595-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.010
Objective and Method Timeline Follow-back interviews were conducted with 107 pregnant women enrolling in smoking cessation and relapse prevention clinical trials in the Burlington, VT area between 2006–2009 to examine the time course of changes in smoking between learning of pregnancy and the first prenatal care visit. We know of no systematic studies of this topic. Results Women reported learning of pregnancy at 5.1 ± 2.2 weeks gestation and attending a first prenatal care visit...
Author(s): Sarah Heil (Lead); Stephen Higgins; Ira Bernstein; Evan Hermann; Gary Badger; Laura Solomon
PubMed: Prev Med. 2014 Nov;68:58-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.034. Epub 2014 Jul 10
Evaluation of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites in the urine of e-cigarette users versus cigarette smokers.
Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity but little information is available on their potential toxic or carcinogenic effects. Methods: Twenty-eight e-cigarette smokers who had not smoked tobacco cigarettes for at least 2 months provided urine samples which were analyzed by validated methods for a suite of toxicant and carcinogen metabolites including 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides...
Author(s): Stephen Hecht (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Rachel Vogel; Sharon Murphy; Steven Carmella; Delshanee Kotandeniya; Makenzie Pillsbury; Menglan Chen; Benjamin Ransom; Elizabeth Thompson
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jun;17(6):704-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu218. Epub 2014 Oct 21.
Abstract Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their...
Author(s): Kevin M. Walton (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Jack Henningfield; Michael Fiore; Maciej L. Goniewicz; Stephen Hecht; Thomas Eissenberg; David Abram; William Bailey; David Clark; Gregory Connolly; Mirjana Djordjevic; Lynne Haverkos; John Hughes; Cheryl Oncken; Lisa Postow; Jed Rose; Kay Wanke; Lucie Yang
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):259-69. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu214. Epub 2014 Oct 21
Introduction: Based on previous metabolism studies carried out in patas monkeys, we hypothesized that urinary 3′-hydroxynorcotinine could be a specific biomarker for uptake and metabolism of the carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine in people who use tobacco products. Methods: We developed a method for quantitation of 3′-hydroxynorcotinine in human urine. [Pyrrolidinone-13C4]3′-hydroxynorcotinine was added to urine as an internal standard, the samples were treated with β-glucuronidase...
Author(s): Pramod Upadhyaya (Lead); Stephen Hecht
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 May;17(5):524-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu206. Epub 2014 Oct 16.
Background As the most popular video sharing website in the world, YouTube has the potential to reach and influence a huge audience. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of what e-cigarette messages people are being exposed to on YouTube by assessing the quantity, portrayal and reach of e-cigarette videos. Methods Researchers identified the top 20 search results on YouTube by relevance and view count for the following search terms: “electronic cigarettes”, “e-cigarettes”...
Author(s): Chuan Luo (Lead); Xiaolong Zheng; Daniel Zeng; Scott Leischow
PubMed: BMC Public Health. 2014 Oct 3;14:1028. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1028.
Sense of coherence and tobacco use myths among adolescents as predictors of at-risk youth cigarette use
We examined the association between a general construct of wellness beliefs, sense of coherence, and a specific measure of tobacco-related beliefs, tobacco use myths, as predictors of two smoking-related outcome measures-next year smoking expectation and last 30-day smoking. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 710 adolescents attending California continuation high schools at baseline and at 1-year follow-up between 2006 and 2008. Cross-sectionally, predictor and outcome measures...
Author(s): Omar El-Shahawy (Lead); Steve Sussman; Jennifer Tsai; Louise Rohrbach; Ping Sun
PubMed: Subst Use Misuse 501:8-14
Background Aging involves multiple biologically complex processes characterized by a decline in cellular homeostasis over time leading to a loss and impairment of physiological integrity and function. Specific cellular hallmarks of aging include abnormal gene expression patterns, shortened telomeres and associated biological dysfunction. Like all organs, the lung demonstrates both physiological and structural changes with age that result in a progressive decrease in lung function in healthy...
Author(s): Matthew Walters (Lead); Lauren J. Buro-Auriemma; Ronald G. Crystal; Bishnu De; Jacqueline Salit; Timothy Wilson; Allison Rogalski; Lindsay Lief; Neil Hackett; Michelle Staudt; Ann Tilley; Ben-Gary Harvey; Robert Kaner; Jason Mezey; Beth Ashbridge; Malcom Moore
PubMed: Respir Res. 2014 Sep 24;15(1):94. doi: 10.1186/s12931-014-0094-1
Preliminary results of an examination of electronic cigarette user puff topography: the effect of a mouthpiece-based topography measurement device on plasma nicotine and subjective effects
Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users’ puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Methods: Plasma...
Author(s): Tory Spindle (Lead); Alison Breland; Alan Shihadeh; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):142-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu186. Epub 2014 Sep 19
The Candidate Cancer Gene Database: a database of cancer driver genes from forward genetic screens in mice.
Identification of cancer driver gene mutations is crucial for advancing cancer therapeutics. Due to the overwhelming number of passenger mutations in the human tumor genome, it is difficult to pinpoint causative driver genes. Using transposon mutagenesis in mice many laboratories have conducted forward genetic screens and identified thousands of candidate driver genes that are highly relevant to human cancer. Unfortunately, this information is difficult to access and utilize because it is...
Author(s): Kenneth Abbott (Lead); Rachel Vogel; Erik T. Nyre; Juan Abrahante; Yen-Yi Ho; Timothy K. Starr
PubMed: Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Jan;43(Database issue):D844-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku770. Epub 2014 Sep 4.
Effects of user puff topography, device voltage, and liquid nicotine concentration on electronic cigarette nicotine yield: measurements and model predictions
Introduction: Some electronic cigarette (ECIG) users attain tobacco cigarette–like plasma nicotine concentrations while others do not. Understanding the factors that influence ECIG aerosol nicotine delivery is relevant to regulation, including product labeling and abuse liability. These factors may include user puff topography, ECIG liquid composition, and ECIG design features. This study addresses how these factors can influence ECIG nicotine yield. Methods: Aerosols were machine...
Author(s): Soha Talih (Lead); Ahmad El-Hellani; Alan Shihadeh; Rima Baalbaki; Rola Salman; Najat Saliba; Zainab Balhas; Nareg Karaoghlanian; Thomas Eissenberg
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):150-7. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu174. Epub 2014 Sep 3.
Objectives. We estimated annual mortality, years of potential life lost, and associated economic costs attributable to regular cigar smoking among US adults aged 35 years or older. Methods. We estimated cigar-attributable mortality for the United States in 2010 using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs methodology for smoking-related causes of death. We obtained cigar prevalence from the National Adult Tobacco...
Author(s): James M. Nonnemaker (Lead); Brian Rostron; Benjamin Apelberg; Patricia Hall; Anna MacMonegle
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2014 Sep;104(9):e86-91. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301991. Epub 2014 Jul 17.
Increasing prevalence of electronic cigarette use among smokers hospitalized in 5 US cities, 2010-2013.
Introduction: Little is known about the pattern of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use over time or among smokers with medical comorbidity. Methods: We assessed current cigarette smokers’ use of e-cigarettes during the 30 days before admission to 9 hospitals in 5 geographically dispersed US cities: Birmingham, AL; Boston, MA; Kansas City, KS; New York, NY; and Portland, OR. Each hospital was conducting a randomized controlled trial as part of the NIH-sponsored Consortium of...
Author(s): Nancy A. Rigotti (Lead); Kathleen F. Harrington; Kimber Richter; Jeffrey Fellows; Scott Sherman; Eliie Grossman; Yuchiao Chang; Hilary Tindle; Thomas Ylioja
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb;17(2):236-44. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu138. Epub 2014 Aug 28.
Author(s): Aruni Bhatnagar (Lead); Laurie Whitsel; Neal Benowitz; Kurt Ribisl; Chris Bullen; Frank Chaloupka; Mariann Piano; Rose Robertson; Timothy McAuley; David Goff
PubMed: Circulation. 2014 Oct 14;130(16):1418-36. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000107. Epub 2014 Aug 24.
Background Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease...
Author(s): Natasha DeJarnett (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Daniel Conklin; Daniel Riggs; John Myers; Timothy O'Toole; Ihab Hamzeh; Stephen Wagner; Atul Chugh; Kenneth Ramos; Sanjay Srivastava; Deirdre Higdon; David Tollerud; Andrew DeFilipis; Carrie Becher; Brad Wyatt; James McCracken; Wes Abplanalp; Shesh Rai; Tiffany Ciszewski; Zhengzhi Xie; Ray Yeager; Sumanth Prabhu
PubMed: J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Aug 6;3(4). pii: e000934. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.000934
Introduction: Alternative tobacco products, such as snus, are emerging in the U.S. market. Understanding correlates of awareness and use, particularly judgments about harm and addictiveness, can inform public health communications about these products. Methods: Data were collected from a web panel representative of the U.S. population in March 2013 (N = 2,067). The survey assessed awareness and use of snus among adults. Absolute and comparative snus judgments, intentions, smoking status, and...
Author(s): Annette Kaufman (Lead); Darren Mays; David Portnoy; Amber Koblitz
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Oct;16(10):1404-8. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu116. Epub 2014 Aug 6.
The burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States has been caused overwhelmingly by cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products (1). In the United States, cigarette consumption declined during 2000–2011; however, consumption of cigars more than doubled during the same period (2). The cigar market includes diverse product types manufactured with a variety of shapes and sizes, filters, tips, flavors, and prices (3). Although national estimates of cigar consumption have...
Author(s): Catherine Corey (Lead); Bridget Ambrose; Blair Coleman; Benjamin Apelberg; Cristine D. Delnevo; Brian King; Corrine Husten
PubMed: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Aug 1;63(30):650-4.
Background Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. Purpose To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative...
Author(s): Bridget Ambrose (Lead); Annette Kaufman; Brian Rostron; Benjamin Apelberg; David Portnoy; Sarah Johnson; Conartd Choiniere
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.04.016.
Acrolein is a major reactive component of vehicle exhaust, and cigarette and wood smoke. It is also present in several food substances and is generated endogenously during inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Although previous studies have shown that dietary or inhalation exposure to acrolein results in endothelial activation, platelet activation, and accelerated atherogenesis, the basis for these effects is unknown. Moreover, the effects of acrolein on microRNA (miRNA) have not been studied...
Author(s): Timothy O'Toole (Lead); Aruni Bhatnagar; Daniel Conklin; Wes Abplanalp; P Haberzettl; X Li; N Cooper
PubMed: Toxicol Sci. 2014 Aug 1;140(2):271-82.
Smoking cessation is followed by increases in serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant associated with lower risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Introduction: Lower concentrations of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with risk of many smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and current smokers are reported to have lower bilirubin levels than nonsmokers and past smokers. This study evaluates the effects of smoking cessation on bilirubin levels. Methods: In a secondary analysis of a 6-week placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation, indirect...
Author(s): Stephanie S. O'Malley (Lead); Ran Wu; Susan Mayne; Peter Jatlow
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Aug;16(8):1145-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu067. Epub 2014 May 8
Nicotine dependence plays a critical role in addiction to tobacco products, and thus contributes to a variety of devastating tobacco-related diseases (SGR 2014). Annual costs associated with smoking in the US are estimated to be between $289 and $333 billion. Effective interventions for nicotine dependence, especially in smokers, are a critical barrier to the eradication of tobacco-related diseases. This overview highlights research presented at the Plenary Symposium of Behavior, Biology and...
Author(s): Mariella De Biasi (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Ian McLaughlin; Erika Perez; Peter Crooks; Linda Dwoskin; Michael Bardo; Paul Pentel
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Aug 1;141:107-17. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.05.013. Epub 2014 Jun 2.
Warning labels on tobacco products are a means to communicate information about the negative health effects of tobacco use to current and potential users. Most tobacco use begins in early adolescence, making it particularly important to understand the degree to which warning labels reach adolescents. Purpose To examine the extent to which youth report (1) seeing the current warnings on cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in the U.S. and (2) that seeing warnings makes them...
Author(s): Sarah Johnson (Lead); Blair Coleman; Charles Wu; Conrad Choiniere
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.005.
Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit.
Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC), and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects...
Author(s): Peter Hajek (Lead); Jean-François Etter; Neal Benowitz; Thomas Eissenberg; Hayden McRobbie
PubMed: Addiction. 2014 Nov;109(11):1801-10. doi: 10.1111/add.12659. Epub 2014 Jul 31.
Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not currently approved or recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or various medical organizations; yet, they appear to play a substantial role in tobacco users’ cessation attempts. This study reports on a physician survey that measured beliefs, attitudes, and behavior related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. To our knowledge this is the first study to measure attitudes toward e-cigarettes among physicians treating...
Author(s): Kelly Kandra (Lead); Joseph G. L. Lee; Leah Ranney; Adam Goldstein
PubMed: PLoS One. 2014 Jul 29;9(7):e103462. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103462. eCollection 2014
Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers
We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, pre-pregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters)...
Author(s): Thomas J. White (Lead); Ryan Redner; Stephen Higgins; Joan Skelly
PubMed: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Oct;22(5):384-91. doi: 10.1037/a0037492. Epub 2014 Jul 28
Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize...
Author(s): Tracy T. Smith (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Eric C. Donny; Alan Sved
PubMed: Prev Med. 2014 Nov;68:23-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.005. Epub 2014 Jul 13.
Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers
Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated...
Author(s): Amanda Richardson (Lead); Jennifer L Pearson; Donna Vallone; Haijun Xiao; Carolyn Stalgaitis
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2014 Aug;104(8):1437-44. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301804. Epub 2014 Jun 12
Low-dose nicotine self-administration is reduced in adult male rats naive to high doses of nicotine: implications for nicotine product standards
Product standards that greatly reduce the content of nicotine within cigarettes may result in improved public health. The present study used an animal model to investigate whether individuals who start smoking following implementation of regulation may be affected differently from current smokers who form the basis of most clinical studies. One group of adult male rats (n=14/group) acquired nicotine self-administration at a high nicotine dose (60 μg/kg/infusion) before experiencing a reduction...
Author(s): Tracy T. Smith (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Deanne Buffalari; Alan Sved; Rachel Schassburger
PubMed: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Oct;22(5):453-9. doi: 10.1037/a0037396. Epub 2014 Jul 7
Background When switching from usual brand cigarettes, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes lead to a reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked, toxicant exposure, withdrawal symptoms and dependence. One area that has been relatively unexplored is what factors might moderate the effects of VLNC cigarettes. This exploratory analysis focuses on sex differences in responses to VLNC cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Methods An exploratory secondary analysis...
Author(s): Rachel Vogel (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Sarah Dermody; Louise Hertsgaard; Xianghua Luo; Lor Moua; Sharon Allen; Mustafa al'Absi
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2014 Jul;39(7):1197-204. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.03.021. Epub 2014 Mar 30.
Addressing the evidence for FDA nicotine replacement therapy label changes: a policy statement of the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
Cigarette smoking creates a substantial public health burden. Identifying new, effective smoking cessation interventions that optimize existing interventions and promoting effective use of approved medications is a priority. When used as directed, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aids smoking cessation, but there is opportunity for improving its effectiveness. Until recently, NRT use guidelines advised smokers to begin using NRT on their quit date, only to use 1 NRT formulation at a time...
Author(s): Katrina Yershova (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jul;16(7):909-14. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu087. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Examining vulnerability to smokeless tobacco use among adolescents and adults meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder
Introduction Smoking prevalence is unevenly distributed in the U.S. population, with those with mental illness, other substance use disorders, and lower socioeconomic status being especially vulnerable. Less research has been conducted on the association between these same vulnerabilities and smokeless tobacco (ST) use. The present study examined cigarette and ST use among adolescents and adults who met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the National Survey on Drug Use...
Author(s): Ryan Redner (Lead); Stephen Higgins; Thomas J. White; Valerie Harder
PubMed: Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;22(4):316-22. doi: 10.1037/a0037291. Epub 2014 Jun 30
This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18–24 and (iii) youth aged 13–17 who are current smokers or who may be susceptible to initiation of smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to...
Author(s): James M. Nonnemaker (Lead); Conartd Choiniere; Matthew Farrelly; Kian Kamyab; Kevin Davis
PubMed: Health Educ Res. 2015 Feb;30(1):46-56. doi: 10.1093/her/cyu036. Epub 2014 Jun 27.
Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: Building an empirical basis for effective regulation
Introduction Both the Tobacco Control Act in the U.S. and Article 9 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enable governments to directly address the addictiveness of combustible tobacco by reducing nicotine through product standards. Although nicotine may have some harmful effects, the detrimental health effects of smoked tobacco are primarily due to non-nicotine constituents. Hence, the health effects of nicotine reduction would likely be determined by changes in behavior that...
Author(s): Eric C. Donny (Lead); Dorothy Hatsukami; Jennifer W. Tidey; Neal Benowitz; Rachel N. Cassidy; Alan Sved
PubMed: Prev Med. 2014 Nov;68:17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.020. Epub 2014 Jun 23
Background The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that primarily resides in airway epithelial cells. Decreased CFTR expression and/or function lead to impaired airway surface liquid (ASL) volume homeostasis, resulting in accumulation of mucus, reduced clearance of bacteria, and chronic infection and inflammation. Methods Expression of CFTR and the cigarette smoke metal content were assessed in lung samples of controls and COPD patients...
Author(s): Fatemat Hassan (Lead); Robert Tarran; Xiaohua Xu; Gerard Nuovo; David Killilea; Jean Tyrell; Chong Da Tan; Philip Diaz; Junbae Jee; Junbae Jee; Daren Knoell; Prosper Boyaka; Estelle Cormet-Boyaka
PubMed: Respir Res. 2014 Jun 23;15:69. doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-15-69
Simultaneous Analysis of 22 Volatile Organic Compounds in Cigarette Smoke Using Gas Sampling Bags for High-Throughput Solid-Phase Microextraction
Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke...
Author(s): Maureen M. Sampson (Lead); Daniel Y. Pazo; Benjamin Blount; Clifford Watson; Daniel Chambers; Fallon Moliere
PubMed: Anal Chem. 2014 Jul 15;86(14):7088-95. doi: 10.1021/ac5015518. Epub 2014 Jul 3.
Electronic cigarette awareness, use history, and expected future use among hospitalized cigarette smokers.
Introduction: E-cigarette use has surged during the past few years while the debate about the product’s safety and efficacy for smoking cessation continues. Little is known about the characteristics that distinguish users from nonusers; in this study, we aimed to elucidate these characteristics among hospitalized smokers, a heretofore unstudied population. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from cigarette smokers via hospital bedside interviews. Participants reported...
Author(s): Kathleen F. Harrington (Lead); Peter S. Hendricks; Noah Hull; Oluwasubomi Akindoju; Young-il Kim; Connie Kohler; William Bailey
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Nov;16(11):1512-7. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu054. Epub 2014 May 13.
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that deliver nicotine to a user by heating and converting to an aerosol a liquid mixture typically composed of propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavoring chemicals, and nicotine1 (Figure). E-cigarette use doubled in just 1 year among both adults and children, from 3.4% to 6.2% in adults (2010–2011) and 3.3% to 6.8% in youth (2011–2012), with high levels of dual use with tobacco cigarettes.1 Although most youth using e-cigarettes are...
Author(s): Rachel A. Grana (Lead); Neal Benowitz; Pamela Ling; Stanton Glantz
PubMed: Circulation. 2014 May 13;129(19):e490-2. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.008545
Digital detection for tobacco control: online reactions to the 2009 U.S. cigarette excise tax increase.
Introduction: The Internet is revolutionizing tobacco control, but few have harnessed the Web for surveillance. We demonstrate for the first time an approach for analyzing aggregate Internet search queries that captures precise changes in population considerations about tobacco. Methods: We compared tobacco-related Google queries originating in the United States during the week of the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) 2009 cigarette excise tax increase with a historic...
Author(s): John Ayers (Lead); Kurt Ribisl; Benjamin Althouse; Sherry Emery
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May;16(5):576-83. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt186. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
Awareness and use of e-cigarettes have increased rapidly, and the products now represent a billion-dollar industry in the USA.1 ,2 Public health concerns about e-cigarettes centre on their potential appeal to the youth market,3 limited scientific evidence regarding their impact on individual and population health,4 and inconsistent product standards, including variations in nicotine content within and across brands.5–7 While some US cities have extended public smoking bans to cover e-cigarettes...
Author(s): Rachel Kornfield (Lead); Jidong Huang; Sherry Emery; Lisa Vera
PubMed: Tob Control. 2015 Mar;24(2):110-1. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051580. Epub 2014 Apr 30.
Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results...
Author(s): Tianrong Cheng (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii11-7. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051482.
Abstract Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and...
Author(s): Ii-Lun Chen (Lead); Corinne Husten
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii1-3. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051504.
Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts...
Author(s): Hoshing Chang (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii54-8. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051480.
Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future.
Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as ‘e-cigarettes’ and ‘electronic delivery devices’ were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. Results...
Author(s): Michael Orr (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii18-22. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051474.
Objective To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. Methods Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed...
Author(s): Elizabeth Durmowicz (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii41-6. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051468.
Abstract Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette...
Author(s): Priscilla Callahan-Lyon (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii36-40. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051470.
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014...
Author(s): Ling Yang (Lead); Elizabeth Durmowicz; James Cheng; Susan Rudy
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii47-53. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051479.
Abstract Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options...
Author(s): Christopher Brown (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 May;23 Suppl 2:ii4-10. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051476.
Background While cigarette consumption in the USA continues to decline, cigar consumption has increased. Tobacco-trade publications suggest that flavoured cigars are driving the recent growth in cigar consumption. Limited survey data exist to explore flavoured cigar preferences among youth and adults. Methods This study used the 2010–2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and Nielsen market scanner data. The NSDUH sample consisted of 6678 past 30-day cigar smokers who reported...
Author(s): Cristine D. Delnevo (Lead); Bridget Ambrose; Catherine Corey; Daniel P. Giovenco; Kevin Conway
PubMed: Tob Control. 2015 Jul;24(4):389-94. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051408. Epub 2014 Apr 10.
An international expert panel convened by the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model of the relative importance of different types of harm related to the use of nicotine-containing products.METHOD:The group defined 12 products and 14 harm criteria. Seven criteria represented harms to the user, and the other seven indicated harms to others. The group scored all the products on each criterion...
Author(s): Jonathan T. Macy (Lead)
PubMed: Eur Addict Res. 2014;20(5):218-25. doi: 10.1159/000360220. Epub 2014 Apr 3.
Sir, substantial evidence implicates tobacco use in multiple oral and systemic diseases, and oral health professionals are well positioned to provide tobacco cessation education and counselling for patients.1 Cigarette smoking has declined in many high-income nations, however, several other new and conventional tobacco products appear to be rising in popularity, including cigars, waterpipes, snus, dissolvable tobacco and electronic cigarettes. This recent trend could have significant health...
Author(s): Benjamin Chaffee (Lead); Elizabeth Couch; Margaret Walsh; Gwen Essex
PubMed: Br Dent J. 2014 Mar;216(6):266. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.208
Tobacco Regulatory Science: Research to Inform Regulatory Action at the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA’s Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority...
Author(s): David Ashley (Lead); Cathy Backinger; Dana Bemmel; Deborah Neveleff
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Aug;16(8):1045-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu038. Epub 2014 Mar 17.
Introduction: Research conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to select graphic warning labels for cigarette packs has been challenged as inadequate for demonstrating effects on smokers’ beliefs about smoking. The present study tested the prediction that warnings alter risk perceptions and thoughts of quitting indirectly through a cognitive pathway (warning believability) and an affective pathway (worry about health), both of which are important for encouraging smokers to...
Author(s): Lydia F. Emery (Lead); Ellen Peters; Kaitlin Sheerin; Daniel Romer; Kathleen Jamieson
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar;16(3):263-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt124. Epub 2013 Aug 14
Once bitten, twice shy: concern about gaining weight after smoking cessation and its association with seeking treatment.
BACKGROUND:Concern about weight gain after quitting smoking is often cited as a barrier to smokers making a quit attempt or seeking treatment.AIM:To identify whether smokers who are non-treatment seekers (NTS) are more concerned about weight gain and have lower confidence to maintain weight after quitting smoking as compared with treatment-seeking smokers (TS).METHODS:Participants were smokers recruited from Penn State Hershey Medical Center and family practice outpatient clinics. A total...
Author(s): Amanda Villarreal (Lead)
PubMed: Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Mar;68(3):388-95. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12332. Epub 2014 Jan 28. PMID: 24471797 "
Smoking and COPD are associated with decreased mucociliary clearance, and healthy smokers have shorter cilia in the large airway than nonsmokers. We hypothesized that changes in cilia length are consistent throughout the airway, and we further hypothesized that smokers with COPD have shorter cilia than healthy smokers. Because intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the process by which cilia of normal length are produced and maintained, and alterations in IFT lead to short cilia in model organisms...
Author(s): Justina Hessel (Lead); Jacqueline Salit; Michelle Staudt; Ann Tilley; Ben-Gary Harvey; Robert Kaner; Jennifer Fuller; Holly Hilton; Jonna Heldrich; Sharon Radisch; Charleen Hollmann; Jenny Yee-Levin; Sriram Sridhar; Sreekumar Pillai
PubMed: PLoS One. 2014 Jan 20;9(1):e85453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085453. eCollection 2014
Impact of smokeless tobacco packaging on perceptions and beliefs among youth, young adults, and adults in the U.S: findings from an internet-based cross-sectional survey
Background Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal with cigarettes. Yet, little research has assessed this with smokeless tobacco (SLT) packaging. This study evaluates the association between three SLT packaging elements with knowledge of health risks and perceptions of novelty and appeal. Additionally, we assess how effects of...
Author(s): Sarah Adkison (Lead); Andrew Hyland; Richard O'Connor; Maansi Bansal-Travers; Danielle Smith
PubMed: Harm Reduct J. 2014 Jan 17;11:2. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-11-2
Suppression of the mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 pathway by activated AMPK prevents hepatic insulin resistance induced by excess amino acids.
Nutrient overload is associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for developing insulin resistance in the presence of excess nutrients are incompletely understood. We investigated whether activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) prevents the hepatic insulin resistance that is induced by the consumption of a high-protein diet (HPD) and the presence of excess amino acids. Exposure of HepG2 cells to excess amino...
Author(s): Hongliang Li (Lead); Ming-Hui Zou; Jiyeon Lee; Chaoyong He; Zhonglin Xie
PubMed: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 15;306(2):E197-209. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00202.2013. Epub 2013 Dec 3.
Smokers’ rhythms in contemplating quitting or making quit attempts are poorly understood. Tobacco control has focused on annual events (eg, New Year’s Day), but circaseptan (weekly) time cycles may likewise exist. For example, many illnesses such as strokes are more common on Mondays.1 Do cessation behaviors also have weekly rhythms?
Author(s): John Ayers (Lead); Benjamin Althouse; Morgan Johnson
PubMed: JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Jan;174(1):146-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11933. Epub 28 October 2013
Tobacco smoking in humans is one of the most persistent and widespread addictions and is driven by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Over the last several decades, understanding of the molecular and cellular basis for nicotine addiction has increased tremendously as a result of pharmacological, molecular genetic, electrophysiological and behavioral studies of nicotine reinforcement. Studies of the biological basis for nicotine reinforcement has helped in the design of new treatments for smoking cessation...
Author(s): Marina Picciotto (Lead); Yann Mineur
PubMed: Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan;76 Pt B:545-53. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.028. Epub 2013 Apr 28.
Peroxynitrite-dependent zinc release and inactivation of guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 instigate its ubiquitination in diabetes.
Aberrant degradation of guanosine 5′-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) with consequent deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin is considered the primary cause for endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. How GTPCH1 becomes susceptible to the degradation remains unknown. We hypothesized that oxidation and release of the zinc ion by peroxynitrite (ONOO−), a potent oxidant generated by nitric oxide and superoxide anions, instigates GTPCH1 ubiquitination and degradation. Zinc contents, GTPCH1 ubiquitination...
Author(s): Yu Zhao (Lead); Huaiping Zhu; Ping Song; Ming-Hui Zou; Jiliang Wu
PubMed: Diabetes. 2013 Dec;62(12):4247-56. doi: 10.2337/db13-0751. Epub 2013 Aug 23.
Cigarette Smokers’ Use of Unconventional Tobacco Products and Associations with Quitting Activity: Findings From the ITC-4, U.S. Cohort
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Methods: Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United...
Author(s): Karin A. Kasza (Lead); Andrew Hyland; Richard O'Connor; Nicolette Borek; Geoffrey Fong; Michael Cummings; Maansi Bansal-Travers; Wilson Compton; Anna Kettermann
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jun;16(6):672-81. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt212. Epub 2013 Dec 27
Sputum PGP is reduced by azithromycin treatment in patients with COPD and correlates with exacerbations.
Rationale Proline–glycine–proline (PGP), a neutrophil chemoattractant derived from the enzymatic breakdown of collagen, is elevated in sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease progression. Whether sputum levels of PGP respond to therapy for COPD or predict outcomes is unknown. Objectives We conducted a study ancillary to a multicenter trial of the efficacy of azithromycin treatment for 1 year in preventing COPD exacerbations...
Author(s): Philip J O'Reilly (Lead); J. Michael Wells; Patricia Jackson; Mark Dransfield; Paul Scanlon; Edwin Blalock
PubMed: BMJ Open. 2013 Dec 23;3(12):e004140. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004140.
Subjective, physiological, and cognitive responses to intravenous nicotine: effects of sex and menstrual cycle phase.
Nicotine dependence is a serious public health concern. Optimal treatment of nicotine dependence will require greater understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of smoking behaviors. A growing literature indicates sex and menstrual phase differences in responses to nicotine. The aim of this study was to assess sex and menstrual phase influences on a broad range of measures of nicotine response including subjective drug effects, cognition, physiological responses, and...
Author(s): Elise E. DeVito (Lead); Aryeh I. Herman; Gerald Valentine; Andrew Waters; Mehmet Sofuoglu
PubMed: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 May;39(6):1431-40. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.339. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.
There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the...
Author(s): An-Li Wang (Lead); Dan Romer; Igor Elman; Bruce Turetsky; Ruben Gur; Daniel Langleben
PubMed: Addict Biol. 2015 Mar;20(2):368-76. doi: 10.1111/adb.12117. Epub 2013 Dec 15.
Pulmonary matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in mechanically ventilated children with respiratory syncytial virus.
Hypothesis RSV infection is a potent stimulus for airway epithelial expression of MMP-9, and MMP-9 activity in vivo is a predictor of disease severity in children with RSV-induced respiratory failure (RSV-RF). Methods Human airway epithelial cells were infected with RSV A2 strain, and analyzed for MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1, a natural inhibitor of MMP-9) release. In addition, endotracheal samples from children with RSV-RF and controls (non-RSV pneumonia...
Author(s): Michele YF Kong (Lead); Edwin Blalock; J.P Clancy; Ning Peng; Yao LI; Tomasz Szul; Xin Xu; Robert Oster; Wayne Sullender; Namasivayam Ambalavanan; Amit Gaggar
PubMed: Eur Respir J. 2014 Apr;43(4):1086-96. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00105613. Epub 2013 Dec 5.
Cigarette smoking induces small airway epithelial epigenetic changes with corresponding modulation of gene expression
The small airway epithelium (SAE), the first site of smoking-induced lung pathology, exhibits genome-wide changes in gene expression in response to cigarette smoking. Based on the increasing evidence that the epigenome can respond to external stimuli in a rapid manner, we assessed the SAE of smokers for genome-wide DNA methylation changes compared with nonsmokers, and whether changes in SAE DNA methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of these cells. Using genome-wide methylation...
Author(s): Lauren J. Buro-Auriemma (Lead); Ronald G. Crystal; Yael Strulovici-Barel; Matthew Walters; Neil Hackett; Michelle Staudt; Jennifer Fuller; Mai Mahmoud; Christopher Stevenson; Holly Hilton; Melisa Ho
PubMed: Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Dec 1;22(23):4726-38. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt326. Epub 2013 Jul 10
Smoking cessation benefits health and lengthens life expectancy at any age.1, 2 With that rationale, smoking cessation figures centrally in comprehensive tobacco control initiatives, including the recommendations of the US Preventive Services Task Force and the World Health Organization.3, 4 The population of the United States has recognized the personal benefits of stopping smoking and, at present, the majority of those who have ever smoked cigarettes have stopped.2, 5 Public health benefits...
Author(s): Jonathan M. Samet (Lead)
PubMed: Circulation. 2014 Jan 7;129(1):8-10. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006928. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
Associations of children's lung function with ambient air pollution: joint effects of regional and near-roadway pollutants
Background Previous studies have reported adverse effects of either regional or near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) on lung function. However, there has been little study of the joint effects of these exposures. Objectives To assess the joint effects of NRAP and regional pollutants on childhood lung function in the Children's Health Study. Methods Lung function was measured on 1811 children from eight Southern Californian communities. NRAP exposure was assessed based on (1) residential...
Author(s): Robert Urman (Lead); Rob McConnell; Talat Islam; Edward Avol; Frederick Lurmann; Hita Vora; William Linn; Edward Rappaport; Frank Gilliland; James Gauderman
PubMed: Thorax. 2014 Jun;69(6):540-7. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-203159. Epub 2013 Nov 19
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α2 deficiency promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration via S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation.
Objective—Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical events in the progression of several vasculopathologies. Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to play a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and migration. However, the roles of AMPK in VSMC migration and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Approach and Results—VSMC migration and the neointima formation were studied in cultured mouse...
Author(s): Ping Song (Lead); Yanhong Zhou; Kathleen Coughlan; Xiaoyan Dai; Hairong Xu; Benoit Viollet; Ming-Hui Zou
PubMed: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Dec;33(12):2800-9. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301869. Epub 2013 Oct 10.
Perceptions and perceived impact of graphic cigarette health warning labels on smoking behavior among U.S. Young adults
Introduction: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18–34. Methods: Data were collected...
Author(s): Andrea C. Villanti (Lead); Jennifer Cantrell; Jennifer L Pearson; Jessica Rath; Donna Vallone
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Apr;16(4):469-77. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt176. Epub 2013 Nov 8
Enhancing youth tobacco surveillance to inform tobacco product regulation: findings from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
Background The use of smartphone applications (apps) to assist with weight management is increasingly prevalent, but the quality of these apps is not well characterized. Purpose The goal of the study was to evaluate diet/nutrition and anthropometric tracking apps based on incorporation of features consistent with theories of behavior change. Methods A comparative, descriptive assessment was conducted of the top-rated free apps in the Health and Fitness category available...
Author(s): Benjamin Apelberg (Lead); Kristen Azar; Lenartd Lesser; Brian Laing; Janna Stephens; Magi Aurora; Lora Burke; Latha Palaniappan
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.010.
Protein alkylation by the *,*-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein. A reversible mechanism of electrophile signaling?
Acrolein, a reactive aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, is thought to induce its biological effects primarily by irreversible adduction to cellular nucleophiles such as cysteine thiols. Here, we demonstrate that acrolein rapidly inactivates the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in human bronchiolar epithelial HBE1 cells, which recovered over 4–8 h by a mechanism depending on the presence of cellular GSH and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and corresponding with reversal of protein–acrolein...
Author(s): Matthew Randall (Lead); Albert van der Vliet; Milena Hristova
PubMed: FEBS Lett. 2013 Nov 29;587(23):3808-14. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
Effects of smoking abstinence on cigarette craving, nicotine withdrawal, and nicotine reinforcement in smokers with and without schizophrenia.
Introduction: Schizophrenia is associated with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. The aims of this study were to compare smokers with schizophrenia (SS) and control smokers without psychiatric illness (CS) on (a) cigarette craving and nicotine withdrawal symptom severity during a 72-hr smoking abstinence period; (b) nicotine reinforcement, before and after abstinence; and (c) latency to smoking lapse following abstinence. We also explored mediators of smoking lapse in SS and CS. Methods:...
Author(s): Jennifer W. Tidey (Lead); Suzanne Colby; Emily Xavier
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar;16(3):326-34. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt152. Epub 2013 Oct 10.
Quantitative analysis of five tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of five total tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), including free and conjugated forms in urine. The limits of detection for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, N′-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, N′-nitrosoanatabine and N′-nitrosoanabasine were 0.6, 0.6, 10.0, 0.4 and 0.4 pg/mL, respectively, with a linear calibration range...
Author(s): Baoyun Xia (Lead); Keegan Nicodemus; Joshua Wong; Nicodemus Keegan; Meng Xu; John Lee; Tonya Guillot; James Li
PubMed: Biomed Chromatogr. 2014 Mar;28(3):375-84. doi: 10.1002/bmc.3031. Epub 2013 Oct 11.
Individuals dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs are vulnerable to cigarette smoking and related adverse health outcomes. Less research has been conducted regarding whether these same groups are vulnerable to smokeless tobacco (ST) use. The goal of this study is to examine vulnerability to ST use among individuals with other drug dependence.METHODS:Utilizing the most recent (2011) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NDSUH), we determined odds ratios (ORs) for current cigarette smoking...
Author(s): Carolyn Stalgaitis (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Feb;16(2):216-23. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt150. Epub 2013 Sep 30.
Cigarette smoke induces systemic defects in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator function.
Rationale: Several extrapulmonary disorders have been linked to cigarette smoking. Smoking is reported to cause cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the airway, and is also associated with pancreatitis, male infertility, and cachexia, features characteristic of cystic fibrosis and suggestive of an etiological role for CFTR. Objectives: To study the effect of cigarette smoke on extrapulmonary CFTR function. Methods: Demographics, spirometry, exercise...
Author(s): Vamsee S. Raju (Lead); Patricia Jackson; Mark Dransfield; Edwin Blalock; Clifford Courville; Carmel McNicholas; Peter Sloane; Gina Sabbatini; Sherry Tidwell; Li Ping Tang; Bo Liu; James Fortenberry; Caleb Jones; Jeremy Boydston; J.P Clancy; Larry Bowen; Larry Bowen; Frank Accurso; Steven Rowe
PubMed: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Dec 1;188(11):1321-30. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201304-0733OC.
Introduction This study investigates factors predicting past year quit attempts among smokers enrolled in substance abuse treatment in New York State. Methods Data were drawn from two prior cross-sectional surveys conducted among clients treated in 10 randomly selected substance abuse treatment programs. Among 820 clients recruited, 542 self-identified as current smokers, and 485 provided information about their quit attempts. The main outcome was reporting a quit smoking attempt...
Author(s): Cristina Martínez (Lead); Joseph Guydish; Thao Le; Barbara Tajima; Emma Passalacqua
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2015 Jan;40:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.08.005. Epub 2014 Aug 27.
There are more than 1 billion smokers worldwide. About half of individuals who continue smoking will die prematurely because of toxins in tobacco smoke. Over the past few years, smokers in economically developed countries have been showing growing interest in electronic cigarettes (ECs) that are designed to deliver nicotine without these toxins.
Author(s): Robert Tarran (Lead)
PubMed: Lancet Respir Med. 2013 Aug;1(6):429-31. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70124-3. Epub 2013 Jul 23.
Transmembrane protein 88: a Wnt regulatory protein that specifies cardiovascular progenitor cell fate
Genetic regulation of the cell fate transition from lateral plate mesoderm to the specification of cardiomyocytes requires suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but the mechanism for this is not well understood. By analyzing gene expression and chromatin dynamics during directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we identified a suppressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), as a potential regulator of cardiovascular progenitor cell (CVP)...
Author(s): Nathan J. Palpant (Lead); Sharon Paige; Cristi Stoick-Cooper; Lil Pabon; Charles Murry; Jeremy Rabinowitz; Brandon Hadland; Irwin Bernstein; Randall Moon
PubMed: Development. 2013 Sep;140(18):3799-808. doi: 10.1242/dev.094789. Epub 2013 Aug 7.
Liver kinase B1 expression promotes phosphatase activity and abrogation of receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in human cancer cells.
Aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation (pRTK) has been associated with diverse pathological conditions, including human neoplasms. In lung cancer, frequent liver kinase B1 (LKB1) mutations correlate with tumor progression, but potential links with pRTK remain unknown. Heightened and sustained receptor activation was demonstrated by LKB1-deficient A549 (lung) and HeLaS3 (cervical) cancer cell lines. Depletion (siRNA) of endogenous LKB1 expression in H1792 lung cancer cells also correlated...
Author(s): Imoh S. Okon (Lead); Kathleen Coughlan; Ming-Hui Zou
PubMed: J Biol Chem. 2014 Jan 17;289(3):1639-48. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.500934. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
Introduction: Food and Drug Administration–mandated product standards that drastically reduce nicotine content in cigarettes aim to decrease smoking and thus improve health outcomes for millions of U.S. smokers. Researchers have suggested that nicotine reduction should be implemented gradually, but a gradual nicotine reduction may shift the minimum level of nicotine required to reinforce behavior or may result in different levels of compensatory smoking behavior. Method: Rats were given...
Author(s): Tracy T. Smith (Lead); Eric C. Donny; Melissa Levin; Deanne Buffalari; Alan Sved; Rachel Schassburger
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov;15(11):1918-25. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt082. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear...
Author(s): Boyi Liu (Lead); Shrilatha Balakrishna; Aiwei Sui; John Morris; Seven-Eric Jordi
PubMed: Pain. 2013 Oct;154(10):2169-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.06.043. Epub 2013 Jun 29.
Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as a powerful animal model to study the biology of lipids1-9. Prostaglandins are an important class of eicosanoids, which are lipid signals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)10-14. These signalling molecules are difficult to study because of their low abundance and reactive nature. The characteristic feature of prostaglandins is a cyclopentane ring structure located within the fatty acid backbone. In mammals, prostaglandins can be formed through...
Author(s): Jeevan K. Prasain (Lead); Hieu Hoang; Johnathan Edmonds; Michael Miller
PubMed: J Vis Exp. 2013 Jun 25;(76). doi: 10.3791/50447.
The behavioral- and neuro-economic process of temporal discounting: A candidate behavioral marker of addiction.
Addiction science would benefit from the identification of a behavioral marker. A behavioral marker could reflect the projected clinical course of the disorder, function as a surrogate measure of clinical outcome, and/or may be related to biological components that underlie the disorder. In this paper we review relevant literature, made possible with the early and sustained support by NIDA, to determine whether temporal discounting, a neurobehavioral process derived from behavioral economics...
Author(s): Warren Bickel (Lead); Mikhail N. Koffarnus; Warren Bickel; Lara Moody; George Wilson
PubMed: Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan;76 Pt B:518-27. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.06.013. Epub 2013 Jun 24.
The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models.
The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase...
Author(s): Senyan Liu (Lead); Yunyi Yao; Xinxin Ding; Jun Gu; Kenneth Aldous; Changlin Mei
PubMed: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 1;272(1):230-7. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.05.022. Epub 2013 Jun 1.
Background: Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes have led to smoking fewer cigarettes, withdrawal relief, and facilitation of cessation. The aim of this study is to examine the effects RNC cigarettes with and without nicotine patch and patch alone on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, withdrawal discomfort, and as an exploratory analysis, on long-term abstinence. Methods: This study involved a randomized, parallel arm design and six weeks of: (i) 0.05–0.09 mg nicotine yield cigarettes...
Author(s): Dorothy Hatsukami (Lead); Rachel Vogel; Stephen Hecht; Joni Jensen; Sharon Murphy; Steven Carmella; Louise Hertsgaard; Sharon Allen; Mustafa al'Absi; Anne Joseph
PubMed: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Jun;22(6):1015-24. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1439. Epub 2013 Apr 19.
Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase expression promotes astrocytosis in subventricular zone of adult mice.
The aim of this study was to determine the role of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and CPR-dependent enzymes in neural stem cell (NSC) genesis in the brain. A mouse model with globally suppressed Cpr gene expression (Cpr-low mouse) was studied for this purpose. Cpr-low and wild-type (WT) mice were compared immunohistochemically for the expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki67), immature neurons (doublecortin, DCX), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, OLIG2)...
Author(s): Yunyi Yao (Lead); Senyan Liu; Yue Wang; Weiping Yuan; Xinxin Ding; Tao Cheng; Qin Shen; Jun Gu
PubMed: Neurosci Lett. 2013 Aug 26;548:84-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.05.043. Epub 2013 May 30.
Background With recent advances in therapeutic applications of stem cells, cell engraftment has become a promising therapy for replacing injured myocardium after infarction. The survival and function of injected cells, however, will depend on the efficient vascularization of the new tissue. Here we describe the arteriogenic remodeling of the coronary vessels that supports vascularization of engrafted tissue postmyocardial infarction (post-MI). Methods and Results Following MI, murine...
Author(s): Jill J. Weyers (Lead); Charles Murry; Stephen Schwartz; Elina Minami; Dara Carlson; Sarah Drupas; Kevin Weitz; Timothy Cox; William Mahoney
PubMed: Published online 2013 Jun 21. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000202
Background Few studies have examined the patterns and correlates of polytobacco use among a large, nationally representative population over an extended period of time. Methods This study examined 10 years of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to establish time trends and correlates for exclusive and mixed use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), cigars, and pipes. Results Results show that rates of polytobacco use were essentially unchanged from 2002–2011 (8.7%...
Author(s): Brian V. Fix (Lead); Andrew Hyland; Bridget Ambrose; Richard O'Connor; Ling Yang; Kevin Conway; Maansi Bansal-Travers; Lisa Vogl; Danielle Smith
PubMed: Addict Behav. 2014 Apr;39(4):768-81. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.12.015. Epub 2013 Dec 29
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and has been shown to significantly harm the combat readiness of military personnel. Unfortunately, recent research showed that cigarettes are sold at substantial discounts in military retail outlets. In fact, the military is the only retailer that consistently loses money on tobacco. Cheap tobacco prices have been identified by enlisted personnel and Department of Defense health policy experts as promoting a culture...
Author(s): Christopher Haddock (Lead); Sara Jahnke; Walker Poston; Larry Williams
PubMed: Mil Med. 2013 May;178(5):563-9. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00517.
Introduction: Researchers have recently suggested that nicotine and carcinogen exposure as measured by biomarkers such as cotinine and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) does not vary with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among Black smokers. Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S. smokers by race, CPD, and menthol cigarette use. Methods: We analyzed urinary...
Author(s): Brian Rostron (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 May;15(5):950-6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts223. Epub 2012 Oct 22.
Content matters: neuroimaging investigation of brain and behavioral impact of televised anti-tobacco public service announcements.
Public service announcements (PSAs) are televised ads that are a key component of public health campaigns against smoking. Understanding the neurophysiological correlates of anti-tobacco ads is an important step towards novel objective methods of their evaluation and design. In the present study, we used Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain and behavioral effects of the interaction between content (“argument strength”) and format (“message sensation value”)...
Author(s): An-Li Wang (Lead); Dan Romer; Daniel Langleben; Andrew Strasser; Kosha Ruparel; James Loughead; Shira Blady; Kevin Lynch; Joseph Capella; Caryn Lerman
PubMed: J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 24;33(17):7420-7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3840-12.2013.
Phosphorylation of Serine 399 in LKB1 Short Form by Protein Kinase Cζ is Required for its Nucleocytoplasmic Transport and Consequent AMPK Activation
Two splice variants of LKB1 exist: LKB1 long form (LKB1L) and LKB1 short form (LKB1S). In a previous study, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser-428/431 (in LKB1L) by protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) was essential for LKB1-mediated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to oxidants or metformin. Paradoxically, LKB1S also activates AMPK although it lacks Ser-428/431. Thus, we hypothesized that LKB1S contained additional phosphorylation sites important in AMPK activation...
Author(s): Huaiping Zhu (Lead); Yu Zhao; Ming-Hui Zou; Cate Moriasi; Miao Zhang
PubMed: J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 7;288(23):16495-505. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.443580. Epub 2013 Apr 23.
The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland.
Background Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in...
Author(s): Carl A. Latkin (Lead); Laura Murray; Katherine Clegg Smith; Joanna Cohen; Amy Knowlton
PubMed: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Oct 1;132(3):466-70. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.007. Epub 2013 Apr 8.
Glutathione has traditionally been considered as an antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress. Hence, the loss of reduced glutathione and formation of glutathione disulfide is considered a classical parameter of oxidative stress that is increased in diseases. Recent studies have emerged that demonstrate that glutathione plays a more direct role in biological and pathophysiological processes through covalent modification to reactive cysteines within proteins, a process known...
Author(s): Yvonne M. W. Janssen-Heininger (Lead); Albert van der Vliet; James Nolin; Sidra Hoffman; Jos Van der Velden; Jane Tully; Karolyn Lahue; Sarah Abdalla; David Chapman; Niki Reynaert; Vikas Anathy
PubMed: J Cell Biochem. 2013 Sep;114(9):1962-8. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24551.
Liver kinase B1 is required for thromboxane receptor-dependent nuclear factor-κB activation and inflammatory responses.
Objective—Thromboxane A2 receptor (TPr) has been reported to trigger vascular inflammation. Nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB) is a known transcription factor. The aims of the present study were to determine the contributions of NF-κB activation to TPr-triggered vascular inflammation and elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying TPr activation of NF-κB. Approach and Results—The effects of TPr activators, I-BOP and U46619, on NF-κB activation, phosphorylation of rhoA/rho-associated kinases...
Author(s): Jinlong He (Lead); Huaiping Zhu; Yanhong Zhou; Ming-Hui Zou; Junjie Xing; Qilong Wang
PubMed: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Jun;33(6):1297-305. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301296. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
Objective Proline–glycine–proline (PGP) has been shown to have chemotactic effects on neutrophils via CXCR2 in several lung diseases. PGP is derived from collagen by the combined action of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and/or MMP9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). We investigated the role of PGP in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design In intestinal tissue from patients with IBD and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, MMP8, MMP9 and PE were evaluated by ELISA...
Author(s): Pim J. Koelink (Lead); Patricia Jackson; Edwin Blalock; Saskia Overbeek; Saskia Braber; Mary Morgan; Paul Henricks; Mojtaba Abdul Roda; Hein Verspaget; Simone Wolfkamp; Anje A te Velde; Rolf Sparidans; John Kruijtzer; Johan Garssen; Gert Folkerts; Aletta Kraneveld
PubMed: Gut. 2014 Apr;63(4):578-87. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303252. Epub 2013 Mar 23.
Military personnel and veterans are disadvantaged by inadequate tobacco control policies. We conducted a case study of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) effort to disallow smoking and tobacco sales in VA facilities. Despite strong VA support, the tobacco industry created a public relations–focused grassroots veterans’ opposition group, eventually pushing the US Congress to pass a law requiring smoking areas in every VA health facility. Arguing that it would be unpatriotic to deny...
Author(s): Naphtali Offen (Lead); Elizabeth Smith; Ruth Malone
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2013 Apr;103(4):604-12. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301022. Epub 2013 Feb 14.
Objective: This study provides insight into how electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may affect the social normative environment for tobacco use among college students. Participants: Participants were 244 freshman and sophomore students. Methods: Students completed an online self-report survey in April 2011. Results: There is a higher acceptance rate of e-cigarette smoking in public than traditional tobacco. For intention to use an e-cigarette, the strongest predictor is current tobacco use...
Author(s): Craig W. Trumbo (Lead); Raquel Harper
PubMed: J Am Coll Health. 2013;61(3):149-55. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2013.776052.
Introduction Previous studies examining tobacco retailers’ compliance with youth tobacco access policies have mostly evaluated retailers’ likelihood of selling cigarettes to minors, and none have evaluated the likelihood of selling snus (a new smokeless tobacco product) to minors. We assessed the availability of snus and the likelihood of selling snus to adolescents in tobacco retailers in a large city in Minnesota. Methods We randomly selected 71 eligible retailers located in a large...
Author(s): Kelvin Choi (Lead); Lindsey Fabian; Jean Forster; Betsy Brock; Katie Engman; Jim Jansen
PubMed: Tob Control. 2014 Sep;23(5):449-51. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050719. Epub 2013 Jan 8.
Characteristics associated with awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among young US Midwestern adults
Objectives. We assessed the characteristics associated with the awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes) among young adults. Methods. We collected data in 2010–2011 from a cohort of 2624 US Midwestern adults aged 20 to 28 years. We assessed awareness and use of e-cigarettes, perceptions of them as a smoking cessation aid, and beliefs about their harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes and estimated their associations with demographic...
Author(s): Kelvin Choi (Lead); Jean Forster
PubMed: Am J Public Health. 2013 Mar;103(3):556-61. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300947. Epub 2013 Jan 17.
Desire versus efficacy in smokers' paradoxical reactions to pictorial health warnings for cigarettes.
Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs create aversive emotional reactions to smoking and induce thoughts about quitting; however, contrary to models of health behavior change, they do not appear to alter intentions to quit smoking. We propose and test a novel model of intention to quit an addictive habit such as smoking (the efficacy-desire model) that can explain this paradoxical effect. At the core of the model is the prediction that self-efficacy and desire to quit an addictive habit...
Author(s): Dan Romer (Lead); Daniel Langleben; Ellen Peters; Andrew Strasser
PubMed: PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54937. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054937. Epub 2013 Jan 29.
This letter reflects the views of the author and should not be construed to reflect the FDA’s views or policies. Drs. Villanti, Giovino, Burns, and Abrams have written a very interesting letter, and I am happy to respond to their comments. I will begin by addressing certain misconceptions. First, the authors state that previous studies, including Stellman et al. (2003), did not find a difference in lung cancer risk for menthol and nonmenthol smokers. It should be noted that Stellman...
Author(s): Brian Rostron (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb;15(2):619. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts179. Epub 2013 Jan 4.
An omics strategy for discovering pulmonary biomarkers potentially relevant to the evaluation of tobacco products
Smoking is known to cause serious lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, obstruction of small airways, emphysema and cancer. Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical aerosol containing at least 8000 chemical constituents, either tobacco derived or added by tobacco product manufacturers. Identification of all of the toxic agents in tobacco smoke is challenging, and efforts to understand the mechanisms by which tobacco use causes disease will be informed by...
Author(s): Honggang Wang (Lead); William Mattes; Patricia Richter; Donna Mendrick
PubMed: Biomark Med. 2012 Dec;6(6):849-60. doi: 10.2217/bmm.12.78.
This letter reflects the views of the author and should not be construed to reflect FDA’s views or policies. Dr. Muscat makes the useful point that research has generally found that smokers of unfiltered cigarettes have higher lung cancer risk than smokers of filtered cigarettes. For example, smokers of unfiltered, high-tar cigarettes in the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study II subsequently had higher lung cancer mortality risk than smokers of filtered, medium-tar cigarettes...
Author(s): Brian Rostron (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Oct;14(10):1248.
Abuse potential of non-nicotine tobacco smoke components: acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine
Introduction: This review identified published animal studies evaluating the possible abuse potential of acetaldehyde, nornicotine, cotinine, and anabasine based on five commonly used paradigms. These include their effects on midbrain dopamine (DA) levels, drug discrimination and substitution for known drugs of abuse, place conditioning, self-administration behavior, and somatic withdrawal symptoms. Results: Acetaldehyde had mixed effects on midbrain DA levels and drug discrimination; however...
Author(s): Allison Hoffman (Lead); Sarah Evans
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Mar;15(3):622-32. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts192. Epub 2012 Sep 18.
A temporal chromatin signature in human embryonic stem cells identifies regulators of cardiac development.
Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiovascular cells provides a model for studying molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular development. Although it is known that chromatin modification patterns in ESCs differ markedly from those in lineage-committed progenitors and differentiated cells, the temporal dynamics of chromatin alterations during differentiation along a defined lineage have not been studied. We show that differentiation of human ESCs into cardiovascular...
Author(s): Sharon Paige (Lead); Hao Wang; Lisa Maves; Richard Sandstrom; Lil Pabon; Hans Reinecke; Gabriel Pratt; Gordon Keller; Randall Mood; John Stamatoyannopoulos; Charles Murry
PubMed: Cell. 2012 Sep 28;151(1):221-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.027. Epub 2012 Sep 11.
The Center for Tobacco Products (CTP), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), oversees the implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (TCA). As part of its responsibility in implementing the TCA, CTP receives and reviews voluntary communications from consumers, health care professionals, and concerned members of the public regarding a variety of tobacco products. Surveillance of adverse event (AE) reports allows regulatory agencies (1) to identify previously undetected...
Author(s): Ii-Lun Chen (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb;15(2):615-6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts145. Epub 2012 Aug 1.
Awareness, perceptions, and use of snus among young adults from the upper Midwest region of the U.S.
Background Since its introduction in 2006, snus has been aggressively marketed by tobacco companies. However, little is known about the awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults after Camel and Marlboro snus were sold nationwide in 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2607 young adults (ages 20–28) who participated in the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study in 2010–2011. Data include awareness of snus, ever and past 30-day use, perceived potential of snus as a...
Author(s): Kelvin Choi (Lead); Jean Forster
PubMed: Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):412-7. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050383. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
An emerging aspect of redox signaling is the pathway mediated by electrophilic byproducts, such as nitrated cyclic nucleotide (for example, 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)) and nitro or keto derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids, generated via reactions of inflammation-related enzymes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and secondary products. Here we report that enzymatically generated hydrogen sulfide anion (HS−) regulates the metabolism and signaling...
Author(s): Motohiro Nishida (Lead); Tomohiro Sawa; Naoyuki Kitajima; Katsuhiko Ono; Hirofumi Inoune; Hideshi Ihara; Hozumi Motohashi; Masyuki Yamamoto; Makoto Suematsu; Hitoshi Kurose; Albert van der Vliet; Bruce Freeman; Shibata Takahiro; Koji Uchida; Yoshito Kumagai; Takaaki Akaike
PubMed: Nat Chem Biol. 2012 Aug;8(8):714-24. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.1018. Epub 2012 Jul 1.
Smoking-attributable mortality by cause in the United States: revising the CDC's data and estimates.
Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, but the methods and data used in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) published estimates of adult smoking-attributable mortality have not been substantially revised since their introduction in the 1980s. Methods: We employed the CDC’s general methodology for estimating smoking-attributable mortality but produced improved estimates by using recent, nationally representative...
Author(s): Brian Rostron (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan;15(1):238-46. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts120. Epub 2012 May 16.
Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is currently assessing the public health impact of menthol cigarettes. Results from a recent U.S. cohort study, composed largely of Blacks and limited to 12 Southern states, found that menthol cigarette smokers had lower risks of lung cancer incidence and mortality than nonmenthol smokers. Methods: We conducted a survival analysis of current smokers from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (n = 4,832)...
Author(s): Brian Rostron (Lead)
PubMed: Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Oct;14(10):1140-4. Epub 2012 Mar 1.
Background Research consistently demonstrates that physical activity declines with age. However, such declines do not occur linearly. The transition into early adulthood is one period in which disproportionate declines in physical activity have been evident, but much of our understanding of such declines among young adults has been based on either cross-sectional data or prospective studies that focus exclusively on college/university students. Purpose The purpose of the current...
Author(s): Greta Tessman (Lead); Matthew Kwan; John Cairney; Guy Faulkner; Eleanor Pullenayegum
PubMed: Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S61-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.001.
Pediatric health care practitioners are on the frontlines of intervention with youth and young adults to dissuade them from starting to use tobacco or to help their patients quit using tobacco. Given the increase in diverse and novel tobacco products on the market targeting current tobacco users and potential new users, it is worth reviewing tobacco products and information regarding the responsibilities of the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) new Center for Tobacco Products (CTP)...
Author(s): A.G Difrancesco (Lead)
PubMed: Contemporary Pediatrics. 2011 Nov 1; 1-8.
Since tobacco use is driven by dependence on nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, much research has focused on nicotine dependence. Less well understood, however, is the role that menthol plays in nicotine dependence. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, menthol plays in nicotine addiction in adults and youth. Based on research examining several indicators of heaviness of nicotine addiction, including time to first cigarette upon waking, night waking to smoke, as...
Author(s): Allison Hoffman (Lead); Dee Simmons
PubMed: Tob Induc Dis. 2011 May 23;9 Suppl 1:S5. doi: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-S5.
Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and...
Author(s): Allison Hoffman (Lead); Donna Miceli
PubMed: Tob Induc Dis. 2011 May 23;9 Suppl 1:S6. doi: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-S6.
The Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) oversees the implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, H.R. 1256. Among its many provisions, section 907(a) of the Tobacco Control Act banned the use of characterizing flavors, specifically excluding only tobacco and menthol flavors from the ban. According to section 907(e)(2), “[n]ot later than 1 year after its establishment, the Tobacco Product Scientific Advisory Committee shall submit...
Author(s): Allison Hoffman (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Induc Dis. 2011 May 23;9 Suppl 1:I1. doi: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-I1.
Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol’s effects on 1) biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2) toxicity and cellular effects, 3) lung function and respiration, 4) pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5) allergic reactions and inflammation...
Author(s): Allison Hoffman (Lead)
PubMed: Tob Induc Dis. 2011 May 23;9 Suppl 1:S7. doi: 10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-S7.